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Edit Links2011-03-03 Standing Committee of Petitions, Parliament of Australia. House of Representatives Page: 1

Standing Committee of Petitions, Parliament of Australia. House of Representatives

1

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STANDING COMMITTEE ON PETITIONS PO Box 6021, Parliament House, Canberra ACT 2600 | Phone: (02) 6277 2152 | Fax: (02) 6277 4627 | Email: petitions.committee.reps@aph.gov.au 3 March 2011 Mr [REDACTED] [REDACTED] [REDACTED] Dear Mr [REDACTED] I understand you contacted the secretariat on 2 March 2011 inquiring as to the outcome of your petition on the 'forgotten Australians'. Your petition was tabled on 21 February 2011 by the Chair of the Petitions Committee. The link to the Hansard is available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/hansard/reps/dailys/dr210211.pdfrefer 'page 2, Chamber'. The text of the petition will also be available on the committee's website next week; we are currently upgrading the site to better accommodate the 43r parliament. At its 9 February 2011 meeting the committee decided to refer your petition to the Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs via a letter to the Minister from the Committee. The Minister has a 90 day period after the petition is tabled in which to respond to the petition. The response is addressed to the Chair of the committee, not to the principal petitioner. When the response is received and considered by the Committee it will be tabled in the House of Representatives by the Committee Chair, and subsequently published to the Committee's website. You will then be mailed a copy of the Minister's response. Please note that although the Petitions Committee may resolve to refer a petition to a parliamentary House Committee it is not within its power to directly refer a petition to a House Committee. The way the Committee may attempt to refer a petition to another parliamentary committee is by the Chair raising a motion in the House of Representatives and the House would then vote on the motion. Standing order 208 (b) states that any member of the House may raise a motion to refer a petition to a parliamentary committee—and again, the House would need to vote on this. The committee only resolved to refer your petition to the Minister, which is in their power to do so directly. A Minister may refer an inquiry to a parliamentary committee on a subject matter within their portfolio. This decision is completely independent of the petitions committee. House committees are parliamentary committees comprising government and non-government members—the committees operate independently of the Executive. They have no judicial powers and operate strictly within the rules of parliament. The Petitions Committee has no power under the standing orders to refer a petition to any other body. Should you have any concerns on the receipt of the Ministerial response you may wish to raise them directly with the Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Yours sincerely Sharon Bryant Inquiry Secretary
Edit Links2011-03-03 Standing Committee of Petitions, Parliament of Australia. House of Representatives Page: 2

Standing Committee of Petitions, Parliament of Australia. House of Representatives

2

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STANDING COMMITTEE ON PETITIONS PO Box 6021, Parliament House, Canberra ACT 2600 | Phone: (02) 6277 2152 | Fax: (02) 6277 4627 | Email: petitions.committee.reps@aph.gov.au 3 March 2011 Mr [REDACTED] [REDACTED] [REDACTED] Dear Mr [REDACTED] I understand you contacted the secretariat on 2 March 2011 inquiring as to the outcome of your petition on the 'forgotten Australians'. Your petition was tabled on 21 February 2011 by the Chair of the Petitions Committee. The link to the Hansard is available at: http://www.aph.gov.au/hansard/reps/dailys/dr210211.pdfrefer 'page 2, Chamber'. The text of the petition will also be available on the committee's website next week; we are currently upgrading the site to better accommodate the 43r parliament. At its 9 February 2011 meeting the committee decided to refer your petition to the Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs via a letter to the Minister from the Committee. The Minister has a 90 day period after the petition is tabled in which to respond to the petition. The response is addressed to the Chair of the committee, not to the principal petitioner. When the response is received and considered by the Committee it will be tabled in the House of Representatives by the Committee Chair, and subsequently published to the Committee's website. You will then be mailed a copy of the Minister's response. Please note that although the Petitions Committee may resolve to refer a petition to a parliamentary House Committee it is not within its power to directly refer a petition to a House Committee. The way the Committee may attempt to refer a petition to another parliamentary committee is by the Chair raising a motion in the House of Representatives and the House would then vote on the motion. Standing order 208 (b) states that any member of the House may raise a motion to refer a petition to a parliamentary committee—and again, the House would need to vote on this. The committee only resolved to refer your petition to the Minister, which is in their power to do so directly. A Minister may refer an inquiry to a parliamentary committee on a subject matter within their portfolio. This decision is completely independent of the petitions committee. House committees are parliamentary committees comprising government and non-government members—the committees operate independently of the Executive. They have no judicial powers and operate strictly within the rules of parliament. The Petitions Committee has no power under the standing orders to refer a petition to any other body. Should you have any concerns on the receipt of the Ministerial response you may wish to raise them directly with the Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs. Yours sincerely Sharon Bryant Inquiry Secretary
Edit Links2011-02-21 Hansard Petition - Forgotten Australians pp 20



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Edit Links2011-02-14 Criminal Charges against Dr. Joseph Ratzinger, Pope of the Roman Catholic Church



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Edit Links2011-01-24 Controversy over vaccine trial files [External Link]

Controversy over vaccine trial files By Claire O’Sullivan and Conall O’Fatharta Monday, January 24, 2011 PARTICIPANTS in controversial vaccine trials in mother-and-baby homes have been told by the Department of Health that it can’t give them their medical files or any trial documentation as it is legally bound to return the files to the drugs company. Child documents legally bound to be returned to the drug companies. Governments cannot access the files as the drug companies are the legal owners of the documents.



,Ireland,vaccines,



Controversy over vaccine trial files By Claire O’Sullivan and Conall O’Fatharta Monday, January 24, 2011 PARTICIPANTS in controversial vaccine trials in mother-and-baby homes have been told by the Department of Health that it can’t give them their medical files or any trial documentation as it is legally bound to return the files to the drugs company. The files are in the hands of the Laffoy Commission on Child Abuse, which was forced to halt its vaccine trials investigation following a 2002 court case. Last night, Brenda McVeigh of the commission confirmed that they were "undertaking an examination of all documentation that they have and cataloguing it". She said no files have yet been returned to Glaxo SmithKline. A letter from the Department of Health to the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Health and Children, seen by the Irish Examiner, states that the department cannot hand over the documentation to the committee or to participants as legally "it is not possible for that material to be used for any other purpose" other than Laffoy Commission investigations. "In the circumstances, I understand from the commission that they will be returning all documentation to the source that originally provided it", the letter read. The vaccine trials will be discussed by the Joint Committee in private tomorrow. One of its members, Labour’s Kathleen Lynch, last night said the files have to be handed to the people used in the trials, irrespective of recent court rulings. "I firmly believe the files must be given to victims as a human right. But until they are handed over and until this is finalised, they must be protected and must not be destroyed by any body or any company," she said. Up to 211 children were given the test vaccines in Ireland in the 1960s and 1970s. Now adults, the participants say the drugs were given without parental consent and they have spent years trying to access their medical files and pharmaceutical information from that time. They are also seeking previously unseen files obtained by the Laffoy Commission from medical companies. The Laffoy Commission was investigating vaccine trials between 1940 and 1987 as part of a separate module. However, the commission’s investigation was brought to a sudden halt after court action taken by the doctors involved in the trials. Last September, after it emerged that a woman now living in the US was seeking to sue the Sacred Heart Order and Glaxo SmithKline about the administration of the vaccines, the Oireachtas Joint Committee on Health and Children decided to revisit the vaccine trials issue. The committee wrote to Glaxo SmithKline seeking information on the trials. The company said the documentation contained sensitive personal information and they wouldn’t hand it over without judicial order. This appeared in the printed version of the Irish Examiner Monday, January 24, 2011
Edit Links2011-01-05 UK's Global TB Control Program; Yellow Vaccine Scarcity In Uganda; Rats Detecting TB; Volunteer Health Workers In Afghanistan [External Link]

A paper published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine highlights concern about the U.K. Department of International Development's (DfID) global tuberculosis control strategy, the Guardian reports. "Bruce Currey, Professor Quazi Quamruzzaman and Professor Mahmuder Rahman, all based at Dhaka Community Hospital in Bangladesh, accuse the [DfID] of glossing over the deaths of nearly half a million people," the Guardian writes. "The Crown's term 'moderate mortality' [used in a December 2008 factsheet] covers up an annual tuberculosis death toll, estimated by WHO, of almost half a million people (460,003), mostly poor, in south Asia," they write. "The three experts praise the UK's leadership at the G8 meeting in Okinawa in 2000, which pledged to 'Reduce TB deaths and prevalence of the disease by 50% by 2010.' But, they say, the commitment was then watered down," the newspaper notes. DfID's strategy is also aimed at preventing TB from spreading to the West and does not focus on controlling the disease in communities where it is rampant, according to the authors, the Guardian reports (Boseley, 1/4).



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Edit Links2011-01-04 Vaccine trial victims in court bid to lift veil on experiments [External Link]

VICTIMS of controversial vaccine trials are taking a High Court case to get confidential records on the medical experiments carried out on them as children in the care of the State.

A VACCINE TRIALS DOCUMENT
Commission in dark over vaccine trial documents.
Hand over vaccine files State and Drug firms told.
More vaccine trials were kept secret by the state
Paddy Doyle: We need to know if we were used as guinea pigs
Truth needed on vaccine trials
VACCINE TRIAL FILES ARE LOCKED UP



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Vaccine trial victims in court bid to lift veil on experiments Posted by Paddy on 04/01/2011 Leave a comment (0) Go to comments By Patricia McDonagh Tuesday January 04 2011 VICTIMS of controversial vaccine trials are taking a High Court case to get confidential records on the medical experiments carried out on them as children in the care of the State. A Dublin-based solicitor is preparing the action on behalf of Mari Steed (50), now living in the US city of Philadelphia, and Christopher Kirwan (50), from Cork, the Irish Independent has learned. Vincent Shannon, of Shannons Solicitors, is planning to apply to the High Court for an order of discovery this month to acquire all the victims’ documents from four organisations at the centre of the scandal. This will include Ms Steed and Mr Kirwan’s medical records, and documents that reveal if consent was given by their mothers for the trials. More than 211 vulnerable infants and babies, 123 of whom were in the care of the State, took part in three confirmed trials to test new vaccines between 1960 and 1973. The trials, one of which was carried out in the Sacred Heart Convent in Bessborough, Cork, were conducted by the Wellcome Foundation, whose income came from British drugs maker Burroughs Wellcome — later subsumed into drugs giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). But it remains unclear whether the parents or guardians of the children consented to the trials, or if the foundation complied with Irish licensing legislation. As well as these tests, details of previously unknown trials were handed over by GSK to the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse. A brief paragraph in the commission’s third interim report, in January 2004, confirmed the receipt of relevant documents. It is so far not known how many people were involved, whether children in state care were used for the trials or what medicines were tested. Mr Shannon said the action, if successful, would compel the Department of Health and Children, the Sisters of the Sacred Heart at Bessborough, GlaxoSmithKline and the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse to release all records relating to Ms Steed and Mr Kirwan. If the records show that they have suffered as a result of the trials, Mr Shannon said the case would proceed to ask the court for an apology and damages. “The proposed action (would) look for medical assistance for the victims’ physical or psychological injury as a result of the trials and damages for breach of their constitutional rights and assault,” Mr Shannon told the Irish Independent. Correspondence seen by the Irish Independent shows the organisations continue to hold documents on the trials. GlaxoSmithKline’s legal representative, law firm McCann FitzGerald, said: “We confirm that our client continues to hold records relating to the Irish vaccine trials conducted by The Wellcome Foundation Limited and intends to do so for the foreseeable future.” Records The Department of Health said all departmental records were retained “in line with normal procedures”. A solicitor for the Sisters of the Sacred Heart at Bessborough said files were held in secure storage and it had “no intention” of destroying them. The commission shut down its investigations into the trials on foot of a court case. As revealed in the Irish Independent earlier this year, Ms Steed (50) was effectively used as a guinea pig during the ‘four-in-one’ vaccine trials carried out on her between December 1960 and October 1961, in Bessborough, when she was between nine and 18 months old. Mr Kirwan — who still has marks from the vaccine injections all over his body — was also in Bessborough during that time and claims to have been involved in the trials. Susan Lohan of the Adoption Rights Alliance said victims had been forced to take action at “great personal expense” because of the State’s failure to investigate the trials. “Once again the department has to be dragged kicking and screaming to the table. They are cynically avoiding an investigation into this scandal.” The Department of Health refused to comment last night. - Patricia McDonagh
Edit Links2011-01-04 Vaccine trial victims in court bid to lift veil on experiments [External Link]

Vaccine trial victims in court bid to lift veil on experiments



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VICTIMS of controversial vaccine trials are taking a High Court case to get confidential records on the medical experiments carried out on them as children in the care of the State. A Dublin-based solicitor is preparing the action on behalf of Mari Steed (50), now living in the US city of Philadelphia, and Christopher Kirwan (50), from Cork, the Irish Independent has learned. Vincent Shannon, of Shannons Solicitors, is planning to apply to the High Court for an order of discovery this month to acquire all the victims' documents from four organisations at the centre of the scandal. This will include Ms Steed and Mr Kirwan's medical records, and documents that reveal if consent was given by their mothers for the trials. More than 211 vulnerable infants and babies, 123 of whom were in the care of the State, took part in three confirmed trials to test new vaccines between 1960 and 1973. The trials, one of which was carried out in the Sacred Heart Convent in Bessborough, Cork, were conducted by the Wellcome Foundation, whose income came from British drugs maker Burroughs Wellcome -- later subsumed into drugs giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). But it remains unclear whether the parents or guardians of the children consented to the trials, or if the foundation complied with Irish licensing legislation. As well as these tests, details of previously unknown trials were handed over by GSK to the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse. A brief paragraph in the commission's third interim report, in January 2004, confirmed the receipt of relevant documents. It is so far not known how many people were involved, whether children in state care were used for the trials or what medicines were tested. Mr Shannon said the action, if successful, would compel the Department of Health and Children, the Sisters of the Sacred Heart at Bessborough, GlaxoSmithKline and the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse to release all records relating to Ms Steed and Mr Kirwan. If the records show that they have suffered as a result of the trials, Mr Shannon said the case would proceed to ask the court for an apology and damages. "The proposed action (would) look for medical assistance for the victims' physical or psychological injury as a result of the trials and damages for breach of their constitutional rights and assault," Mr Shannon told the Irish Independent. Correspondence seen by the Irish Independent shows the organisations continue to hold documents on the trials. GlaxoSmithKline's legal representative, law firm McCann FitzGerald, said: "We confirm that our client continues to hold records relating to the Irish vaccine trials conducted by The Wellcome Foundation Limited and intends to do so for the foreseeable future." Records The Department of Health said all departmental records were retained "in line with normal procedures". A solicitor for the Sisters of the Sacred Heart at Bessborough said files were held in secure storage and it had "no intention" of destroying them. The commission shut down its investigations into the trials on foot of a court case. As revealed in the Irish Independent earlier this year, Ms Steed (50) was effectively used as a guinea pig during the 'four-in-one' vaccine trials carried out on her between December 1960 and October 1961, in Bessborough, when she was between nine and 18 months old. Mr Kirwan -- who still has marks from the vaccine injections all over his body -- was also in Bessborough during that time and claims to have been involved in the trials. Susan Lohan of the Adoption Rights Alliance said victims had been forced to take action at "great personal expense" because of the State's failure to investigate the trials. "Once again the department has to be dragged kicking and screaming to the table. They are cynically avoiding an investigation into this scandal." The Department of Health refused to comment last night. - Patricia McDonagh Irish Independent
Edit Links2010-12-27 A Witness of 13 Years of Medical Negligence and Financial Fraud [External Link]

The Missionaries Of Charity: Interview with Sally Warner – A Witness of 13 Years of Medical Negligence and Financial Fraud



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Stop The Missionaries Of Charity: Interview with Sally Warner – A Witness of 13 Years of Medical Negligence and Financial Fraud Posted on December 27, 2010 by The Gorilla Atheist| Leave a comment Note – This is an interview from a friend of mine, Hemley Gonzalez, that I am reposting here with his permission. I implore you to visit: www.stopthemissionariesofcharity.com In addition, be sure to sign the petition here: http://www.indianvoice.org/stop-the-missionaries-of-charity-petition.html Interview with Sally Warner – A witness of 13 Years of Medical Negligence and Financial Fraud by Hemley Gonzalez, December, 17th 2010 – Kolkata, India Sally Warner, a registered nurse with a degree in sociology and a graduate diploma in social work from Western Australia, began working as a volunteer with The Missionaries of Charity in 1997. She quickly realized there was something horribly wrong going on in all of the children homes she had visited and volunteered in and soon after became a dissenting voice and critic of the organization, publishing her first book titled “Mother Teresa” in 2003 about these experiences and now currently working on her second publication “Mother Teresa: Sainthood Delayed” to be released in 2011. Sally had heard about my work and the facebook campaign: STOP The Missionaries of Charity / www.stopthemissionariesofcharity.com and after finding out I too was in Kolkata, a meeting was scheduled. The following is the transcribed audio of my hour long interview with her on this most disheartening subject. More about Sally’s work: www.sallywarner.blogspot.com Hemley Gonzalez: When did you come to Kolkata to work with the Missionaries of Charity? Sally Warner: I’ve spent the last thirteen years volunteering and visiting several houses operated by the Missionaries of Charity, and eventually made my way to Kolkata in late 1999 and began volunteering in some of the houses in early 2000. Here I have visited and volunteered in: Green Park, Shanti Dan, Premdan, Daya Dan and Kalighat which I found quite awful, I lasted only a few day there as I thought it was very dangerous for volunteers with all the highly contagious cases of Tuberculosis, but I had to see it for myself and couldn’t believe it. Speaking of Kalighat, it is now closed for renovations which I’m sure you and your “STOP The Missionaries of Charity” campaign had much to do with. HG: How many houses would you say you’ve worked in over the last 13 years? SW: The following is a timeline of the homes I’ve worked in as well as the many others I have visited. I have spent most of my time in the children homes, there were some I could not deal with, some of the ladies homes, and others where patients were just sitting around and doing nothing, often in cement floors and lying in their own excrements, people drugged wrongly by the nuns and of course there is or should I say for now “was” Kalighat, where anyone could just walk in and immediately see an average of 50 men and 50 women laying in cots and basically rotting away. * Trivandrum Shishu Bhavan Sept- Dec 1997 * Visited Ernakulum MC Shishu Bhavan, and two other of Mother’s homes for handicapped children * Volunteered Royapuram Chennai June-December 1998 * Visited and briefly volunteered Mangalore, * Visited and briefly volunteered Goa * Visited and briefly volunteered in Vellore TN * Visited and briefly volunteered in Mother’s children’s home Pt Blair Andaman Islands * Chennai north –home for dying and destitute Women Feb-March 1999 * Visited home for dying and destitute Men Jan 1999 * Visited home for handicapped babies Chennai north April 1999 * Volunteered July-late Dec 1999 Civil Lines Shishu Bhavan Delhi * Visited and briefly volunteered Home for Dying Delhi 1999 * Visited and briefly volunteered Handicapped Children’s Home New Delhi 1999 * Volunteered Green Park 2001 * Volunteered Daya Dan * Volunteered Shishu Bhavan – upstairs babies 100+ room; downstairs children’s room 100+ and handicapped children 40 plus- 2000-2002 * Volunteered Gandhi School 2001 * Volunteered Nirmala Hriday Home of Dying Destitute 2001 * Visited and briefly volunteered in Mother’s Calcutta’s Leper’s home * Visited and volunteered for women in Prem Dan * Visited and volunteered Home for Prisoners Asha Dan * Visited and briefly volunteered MT Bentley Perth home * Visited Mother’s establishments in Brisbane Sydney Melbourne 2006 * Volunteered twice total 3 months in Cambodia Phnom Penh 2004, 2008 * Volunteered in Mother’s Home Bellevue Johannesburg 3 months 2007 * Volunteered in Mumbai Sept-Nov 2008 * Visited and briefly volunteered in Mother’s home in Durban SA 2009 * Visited and briefly volunteered in Mother’s home in Pretoria SA 2009 * Returned to Kolkata and visited Daya Dan, Prem Dan and Shanti Dan, Green Pack, Shishu Bavan and Mother House HG: What are your skills and how were you applying them in the different houses you worked in? SW: I am a registered nurse and also have a degree in sociology. When I first started volunteering in Trivandrum and noticed some strange things going on with the kids I thought, maybe these children, since they came from a different culture, had more tolerance to some things that western babies do not, maybe they could tolerate hot milk, maybe they can cope with less food because they were stronger, eventually I realized when babies started dying that they in fact couldn’t cope with some of the things the nuns were doing to them. I began to observe that some of the basic educational functions were totally absent from the house, such as daily interaction, development classes, consistent and educational play hours and so on. I tried to get toys out of the cupboard several times, since I believe stimulation is very important for children which in these orphanages are not being regularly touched or physically interacted with or let alone have anything of their own, so I found myself grabbing even spoon, buckets, glasses, anything for them to learn to use for themselves, but the nuns were very adamant about allowing me to do things of this nature on a regular basis. HG: What exactly were some of the things you were trying to work on while you were there? SW: It is extremely difficult to make any progress with the nuns. You can unlock the cupboards, bring a lot of puzzles and books but because the staff isn’t trained or the nuns do not encourage them to use them, they often just sit locked in these cabinets or given away to other people. Once complaints started coming in from parents in Europe who were adopting some of the children and had noticed a very low and poor learning ability from their newly adopted son or daughter, that’s when the nuns began to consider having some proper programs instituted. In 1999 in Delhi they reluctantly allowed a group of doctors from St. Steven’s hospital to come in to one of the orphanages with workbooks and materials, they then tested about thirty children for a play-therapy program they had brought with them and tested them again after, the average for this group was 60 DQ (development quotient), the average for a normal child is around 100, after exposing them to toys and educational material and giving them regular attention, 45 minutes in the morning and 45 minutes in the afternoon, and after 3 months, they saw the development quotient had gone up to 80. Then a year later, the nuns had stop doing the play-therapy and dismantled the programs altogether, and when doctors had returned to the test the children again they found that their DQ had dropped to 55 which is clearly a delayed development issue that could cause permanent damage for the child, so they immediately employed a play-therapist in Delhi to try and get the children back on the morning and afternoon programs. In 2002 I returned with a play-therapy program to try and have the nuns implement it only to discover they had canceled the therapist in Delhi because they didn’t see a need for it. Some of the top therapists in the country are being turned down for their services, and this is simply unacceptable. Another case of distressful neglect of course is Kalighat which is especially disturbing to me because as a registered nurse in Australia I often work with geriatric cases and others with severe handicaps that aren’t exactly dying but are going to be staying in the nursing home for the rest of their lives. In Kalighat patients have little or no dignity, for starters they don’t have names they are only identified by numbers, and all the women’s heads are shaved because of the scabies and lice which are far too common in many of the houses. What hospital do you know is infected with lice? These facilities are substandard at best, they rarely use warm water and with so many fragile individuals being bathed on cement floors, their ailments and deaths are instead accelerated. HG: It seems you have been met with some indifference and resistance? SW: When I started in Trivandrum trying to explain to the nuns and the staff about the right measurements and amounts of milk babies of different ages should have, and being basically ignored, (One of the superior nuns said to me: “I don’t read that stuff”) and this was the first of many instances where I would bring up medical and professional information appropriate to India to try and help them do the correct thing but after 13 years of being ignored this is where I draw the line. HG: What would you say is the common theme of negligence in all the houses operated by the Missionaries of Charity in which you worked in? SW: Anne Sebba, a British academic, who wrote a book about mother Teresa highlighted what I think IS the central problem with the organization, in one of the many incendiary statements Mother Teresa made over the years was that “education causes confusion” and so she thought education was unnecessary, and the prime virtue for the nuns within the organization was obedience, and instructed her followers to believe that if they were obedient, anything else they did was OK. With this in mind, going through some of the physiological and operational aspects I would say these nuns have followed instruction quite well. And here are some of the details that repeated themselves far too often in homes across India and other continents: * Donations being locked up, rarely used or plainly given to people who they were not intended for. * Local staffed being overworked and underpaid (In India it is common to employ people to watch over babies and perform a lot of the cleaning and feeding duties for up to 14 hours each time for only $30 rupees a day) * Milk products consistently being wrongly administered to babies and toddlers and in some cases causing death * Insufficient and untrained staff looking over babies and children (Over 100 in a single room at times, with babies under 12 months of age who require a lot of attention) * Questionable food, or brown food as you will see in the pictures below * Malnutrition cases in children where the stomach blows up and the limbs get very thin and the hair falls out AKA Marasmus. * Children who are handicapped, particularly blind children, even to this day in Varkala and Mumbai, they are not given any proper education or assigned any person who could teach them any language and as they grow older they become more and more isolated and after certain years of age, they will not learn to speak at all. * The nuns in all houses begin their day with prayers and interrupt what would be a normal schedule in any medical facility in the middle of the day, diapering for hours for more prayers and other religious functions, leaving untrained and insufficient staff to cover them in them in their absence. * Dangerous environments, with dangerous playground equipment and dangerous stairs where children could easily fall through and kill themselves. * No one ever sees what happens after “volunteer” hours as volunteers must leave all the premises. I was able to stay longer periods of time and see what happens when the nuns go away and the people who are managing the place are certainly not the nuns. If you happen to cruise by at lunch time you will find only the staff. I stopped by one of the houses in Christmas day 1999 at about lunch time, and in this particular house there were about 120 babies upstairs and I was the only person in the whole building, so you had babies crying, stuck in cots and in south Africa you often had babies falling out of their cots and onto a cement floor and in Chennai they often fell out too, damaging their heads. * People doing burn dresses when they didn’t know how, not using proper medication to stop pain, etc. * Paralyzed patients dying of suffocation after being improperly fed by volunteers. * Volunteers who complain being kicked out. * Medical professionals being turned away or even being kicked out of some of the homes when they spoke up about the medical negligence or tried to institute proper and ongoing medical care. * Malaria a case in point where the nuns in the house in Chennai patently refused to use fans or mosquito nets, by the time they were forced to use them by some of the local donors, it was too late for several babies. * Typhoid fever, when I was in Mumbai was a problem in 2008 and 2010. * Children not drinking enough water, as it isn’t consistently distributed and since many of them aren’t able to communicate I often saw children drinking water from toilets resulting in more diseases. HG: So, you work primarily with children? It seems to be your central focus. SW: Yes, initially I was interested in adopting a child, but the Missionaries of Charity do not adopt children to Australia because of Mother Teresa’s views on contraceptive use, and I’ve had nuns beg me to try and stop abortions in Australia, something I found rather strange considering they don’t respect me or my opinion in any other areas, and for them to come up to me and ask me to try and change the abortion laws in Australia is rather bizarre. HG: I’m curious, how would they expect you to change the abortion laws for an entire country? SW: If people are so silly as to believe asking away to random citizens can accomplish this, I would say this is indicative of the kind of relationship they keep with the real world. I know they have homes in Australia, maybe that’s the prime purpose of the homes there. HG: What brought you to work with the missionaries of charity, starting back in 1997 and after seeing everything you’ve described thus far, why have you remained a volunteer with them? SW: I came to adopt a child in Trivandrum, and I couldn’t do it because of the organization’s view on abortion, and they shy away from countries in which such is legal as a way of punishing their laws if you will which is insane to say the least. So I spent time with babies whom I really enjoy and I found it really distressing because so many of them were dying of preventable causes. I actually and stupidly thought they would surely change but of course they didn’t and when I reached Kolkata also found more volunteers who too had tried to change things but were ignored and even kicked out of the organization. For example, I met a Russian girl in 2000 who said I should protest, and so I said, yes, let’s do that and she backed out fearing of not being allowed to volunteer in the future. So there are a lot of volunteers who do not agree with these practices but don’t want to lose the opportunity to continue to return to these homes. HG: So, knowing that this negligence was not an act of ignorance but rather an orchestrated and consistent behavior of these nuns, why then do you keep retuning to volunteer with the Missionaries of Charity? SW: Perhaps because of my background, as I am adopted myself, I didn’t know my age, who my biological parents were, I was legally blind up to the age of 14 when I was able to get glasses, I have more empathy for these children than most people and I felt really guilty about it, so now that I’ve come forward, I am trying to raise consciousness, and back in 2000 there weren’t many dissenting voices. Others like Aroup Chatterjee, and Christopher Hitchens were the lone rangers and I eventually got some volunteers to write some letters to nun Nirmala, the then head of the organization about the usual complaints but that was pretty much it and of course nothing came of it. And now people like you who in recent years have been able to restart the dialogue and conversation about the ongoing negligence, perhaps there is some hope that things will improve or change. HG: Do you have any knowledge of the financial structure of the MISSIONARIES OF CHARITY? SW: This is perhaps one of the most secretive areas of the organization. I know that Nirmala, the former head nun has been reported in the paper saying that since Mother Teresa died the donations have actually gone up and at that time Reuters and Anne Sebba had also placed the figures at about 50 million USD coming in each year. I also met an ex-missionaries of charity and wrote down what she had to say, “laks of rupees in donations come in through Mumbai every day”, she had also said containers filled with supplies, clothes and equipment are often arriving in Kolkata from several countries including Singapore and never seeing the equipment being used or delivered at the homes but instead she had seen trucks taking away the donated clothes and various other products to local markets where these items were sold as “second-hand mother Teresa clothes, good quality” and so on, as well as second hand toys being sold on the sidewalks of Chorengee road. I can’t imagine what the donors would feel if they knew this is how their donations are ending up. Also, Catholic Aid sends bulgur wheat and the Missionaries of Charity uses it frequently, which is not a popular grain here, one of the workers was able to take some away with him, and I was able to personally examine it and it was just awful. On Shishu Bhavan there actually is a store where they sell donated milk and I was able to buy some myself outside the facility. HG: Why would an organization which receives millions of dollars in donations have to sell items donated to help people actually held in these houses? SW: Well, I don’t really know but when Missionaries of Charity are running homes (and they’ve got about 710 properties) I suppose one of the reasons might be how they choose to cover some of the organization’s internal expenses. For example, a few years back I visited the two homes in Australia and one of the nuns was arranging a flight to Sydney for a retreat, quite an expensive jaunt, another time the pope was going to be in Sydney and they were just pecking to flight there, it was about 5 nuns and when you start to figure the cost it can add up. And people definitely donate, I’ve been at Shishu Bhavan working and seen visitors come in and stare at the metal cots packed with babies, no toys, no books or educational posters, and it creates a very compelling picture. HG: Shishu Bhavan, this is the same house that receives thousands of toys and boxes and boxes of educational material each year? SW: Oh sure, even I have personally brought Kilos and Kilos of toys and they are never around when I’ve returned to work in the houses. I don’t know what happens to them, they are there one day and the next day they aren’t there anymore! You have to be there every day and watch the mysterious disappearance of all of these items, in Delhi they had many good toys donated by wealthy Indians and they either kept them locked up or gave them away. HG: You’ve had sometime to speak to the nuns who are in charge about the negligence that you have witnessed and the way some of the health issues are handled, you’ve obviously tried to improve some of the conditions even. What has been the general reaction of the women who run this organization when you presented them with logical and viable options to change their practices? SW: I have spoken to Nirmala when she was the general nun in charge 10-12 times, and sadly it is completely futile. When I brought the play-therapy program, the nuns were really offended and refused to do anything, the fact remains that some of them are in a very confused state, for instance, the head of Shishu Bhavan once received a “play-way” booklet I had obtained from the Loreto School which was a simple and effective way to teach children through play, but because of the organization’s stance on education, the nuns were unable to implement and therefore rejected it. I got a hold of an internal publication, a handbook on how to deal with handicapped children, and they do nothing of these rules, I looked through them in detail and it was a rather confusing program; unlike the play-therapy documents I had obtained from the Delhi pediatricians which were all very clearly detailed. HG: Speaking of the issue of poverty, it seems that basically they have ignored several outcries for change and really have no interest in improving the conditions of their homes and the way the operate, so what exactly is the purpose of the Missionaries of Charity? SW: Mother Teresa wanted wholehearted free service to the poorer of the poor because she thought these were people who didn’t know “jesus” so her primary focus was really to get them to know her belief, and in many cases die a “beautiful” death so you have babies who were dying, for example in Chennai and the nuns would say things like, “better they go to god” so you don’t know what to say to that when the cause of death was lack of food or poor hygienic conditions. HG: Why haven’t donors been made aware of these practices? You would have to think any rational donor, regardless of his or her belief, if they understood what really goes on with their donation that these are absolutely unacceptable practices? SW: It’s really hard to say because clearly children are not being tended to or educated properly, I took a lot of people to Mumbai when I was there to have a look and people cried, some people were quite disturbed by what they saw and they didn’t know what to think. I have been telling people for years to not give money to Kalighat, it will not help the men and women lying on the floor, but people completely ignored me and when they went there they were so distressed by the conditions that they couldn’t help themselves and gave money anyway, because they really believed that their money is going to improve the conditions. HG: This seems to be a common practice with the Missionaries of Charity; they have these homes which are just in dismal conditions and almost as a museum to elicit donations from the gullibility or compassion of those who visit the houses. Isn’t it obvious what’s happening here? SW: It has been written by Indian writers that of course if you got poor conditions then people are more liable to give money, so I was probably silly too, I thought if I brought stuff it would help, one time I had toys for every kid in one home but the nuns did not want to give a toy to everyone, and I couldn’t understand why. Weather is jealousy, or whatever, I don’t know, but they wouldn’t do it. And I suppose it’s hard to imagine people are so evil, and I suppose that’s what others think, you just can’t imagine that people could be this heartless but I’ve personally have seen it. HG: There is definitely a blatant separation of social classes here in India, the caste being a case in point. Would you say a lot of these same issues exist in some of the other countries you’ve visited and worked in? SW: Is generally poverty elsewhere, say in Johannesburg the conditions are slightly better because the laws are different, and I remember a local NGO which was trying to organize programs to help them function more as an educational center, confided in me that children looked after by the Missionaries of Charity were by far the most deprived children in Johannesburg and I would have to say after visiting several different homes in different continents, that this is true. I have visited homes in India, and the ones that are adopting children away are perhaps a bit higher in quality since parents from develop nations would seriously question issues of malnutrition and other diseases that are easily treatable. HG: I think is fair to say that it is pretty costly and difficult for the average person who wants to be a volunteer to get to some of these remote and faraway places to actually help and see for themselves what goes on. You are one among many dissenting voices that have actually taken the leap of cost if you will, what will it take for voices like yours, voices like mine to be heard, taken seriously and used to hold these people accountable? SW: I guess it has to be a numbers game. People here in Kolkata have said it has to do with the government, and when it changes some changes may come as the current one is holding it back. A good example is the dilemma of washing machines in South Africa, people donating washing machines and the nuns rejecting them, in India it might be a bit different as it is still common practice to wash by hands but in South Africa development has reached farther. People try, but how much can you do? Here in West Bengal government officials flat out told me: “what can we do to stop the Missionaries of Charity from torturing a few babies?” In 1965 the organization’s financial operation was taken over by the Vatican directly and not the local bishops or archediosis, so talking to the local “superiors” has absolutely no effect whatsoever. HG: So even within the exclusive channels of the religious structure which this organization is governed by you really don’t get anywhere do you? SW: No. I took the issues to father Huart and Father Abello both Jesuits who had been involved with Mother Teresa and the Missionary of Charity for a long time, as well as others Jesuits who are now dead. Sometimes I don’t think they knew what was going on. Father Le Joly quite a nice guy who has written several books as well, when I met him he was half deaf and legally blind, he couldn’t really see what was going on, can’t blame him, he was in his 90’s. Father Huart who released mother Teresa’s private letters for the book “Come Be My Light” from the archbishop when he died, (letters which mother Teresa expressively wanted destroyed, obviously they were not) had spoken to me several times after I gave him a copy of my first book and refused to do anything about it, and said to me: “what do you expect me to do, take six months off and take a look at the missionaries of charity?” and I said, well, YES! But the answer was obviously no. Also father Abello, who I too gave a copy of my first book said he wouldn’t read it until I would republish it using his views on contraception. I also met the curator of the mother Teresa letters’ book and tried to get him to go and have a look at what was happening at Shishu Bhavan which is literally a two minute walk from the headquarters of the Missionaries of Charity and he was not interested. And last but not least I too met the bishop of Kolkata when Mother Teresa was alive who had also read my book and practically slammed the door on me but not before saying “It doesn’t matter, as long as the donations don’t stop coming in” HG: I’ve actually read “Come Be My Light” and I must say it reads like the work of a deeply and mentally disturbed individual, and it was quite shocking that the book was released by the Missionaries of Charity themselves, but after further inspection it was evident that the move to publish it from inside the organization was nothing less than an attempt to soften the blow and the severity of the content. SW: That’s correct. Father Huart who had written several articles for theological publications had pretty much admitted there was a strategy to make mother Teresa seem as charismatic as St. Teresa de Avila who had the same kind of mental problems, not being able to find the particular god of her particular religion and the torment and agony people suffer from these episodes of what many doctors may consider to be mild to severe cases of schizophrenia. HG: Would you say it is time for the world to revise and review the image that has been created about Mother Teresa and the actual work that her organization does? SW: People like Christopher Hitchens who once said she was a saint for sinners, in this case sinners being some of the rich folks in our world who find it convenient to feel good about their deeds through these channels. And it is convenient for the catholic church, who came forward many years ago and expressed it needed an American saint, a figure that could escalate donations worldwide, and mother Teresa, although Albanian and an Indian citizen, in 1996 was granted honorary U.S citizenship, so they are trying to do all they can to continue to have donations flow through which incidentally have dropped off with the pedophile and child rape crisis of recent years. HG: The Vatican is in fact the parent company of the Missionaries of Charity which is also the same religious organization that has paid $2.9+ billion dollars since the 1950’s in court settlements for the child rape and abuse epidemic it is facing, so how do we know that many of the donations sent to the Missionaries of Charity have not been used for this purpose? SW: Almost all the money the Missionaries of Charity receive goes to Rome, but it is next to impossible to track it because they have refused to publish how much money they’ve collected since starting operations in 1952. The Catholic Church is trying to increase attendance and collections at all their churches. So the money for the thousands of settlements and court cases certainly had to come from somewhere. HG: Given everything we know about the missionaries of charity and their operation, it begs the question, where is all the money they have taken and continue to take in each year going to? SW: My toys went unaccounted for, the moment I left them at their doors, and these are just toys, so imagine what happens with money. I witnessed so many volunteers and visitors coming into the homes through the years and just handing over money, and these are the ones who can physically get to some of these place, so try to imagine what the mail room might look like. HG: What is next for Sally Warner? SW: While I’m in Kolkata for the next two weeks, I am looking forward to printing enough copies of my new book and hope it will raise some awareness and achieve some changes. Without the necessary changes, people will continue to suffer conditions which amount to a human rights violation. HG: After everything we’ve come to know about the Missionaries of Charity, is change actually possible? SW: I suppose there are some changes but not necessarily taking place at the Missionaries of Charity. It appears that people are being able to adopt children much easier and from many more channels without having to go through the missionaries of charity, so they could stop the whole program altogether, but you never know with these people. Today, they continue to misdiagnose and mistreat people with diseases that otherwise could be cured and preventable, so if they keep kicking people out on the streets only to have them return a month later, this endless cycle of senseless “help” will continue. It is very scary to think they are anything but responsible, I’ve seen their so called medical books and rarely do patients have names, often they are just numbers, so it is very difficult to understand who comes, who goes, there are no medical histories. And in places like Kalighat, as you know, the death certificates are all made up and the people who sign them aren’t doctors, and of course some of the burial methods which are directly against the cultural traditions of the deceased, and so on. So no, change is a very scary proposition for them and therefore I don’t see it happening anytime soon. HG: Would it be fair to say that the world would be better off without the Missionaries of Charity? Surely there are many other organizations doing great work while conducting themselves with accountability and in search of solutions to the question of poverty. SW: I actually believe the Missionaries of Charity are detrimental to progress, because people come here, volunteer and return home with a picture of substandard conditions for those the Missionaries of Charity claim to help which don’t have to be, this is 2010, it was probably the reality of the 1950’s when India had gained its independence and it was struggling in all fronts but for me the people living on the streets, the children anyhow, have a real chance at learning to read, write and learn new skills which they certainly don’t at the Missionaries of Charity. Mother Teresa believed poverty was good for poor people and the world, she once said poverty is my mother and suffering is joy but one has to wonder how much of this she actually believed. She once also said she wanted to die in Kalighat, but she didn’t. She died surrounded by machinery and some of the best care money can provide, unlike the thousands of women and men who died at the hands of her nuns without painkillers or any of the other comforts she herself enjoyed. Hemley Gonzalez: I want to thank you for your time and strength to continue to speak up about this. You have certainly echoed some of what I have been saying for the last two years and have shed new light on many more cases of abuse in many of the different homes operated by the Missionaries of Charity. And you have clearly confirmed what I have been alluding to in my work, which is that this was not isolated to one particular house but rather, it seems to be a rampant and inherent negligence throughout the organization, once again, THANK YOU and it has been a pleasure meeting you. Sally Warner, Author / www.sallywarner.blogspot.com Interviewed by: Hemley Gonzalez, www.stopthemissionariesofcharity.com
Edit Links2010-12-13 I just want answers. I need to know why I was picked for secret trials of a new vaccine [External Link]

I just want answers. I need to know why I was picked for secret trials of a new vaccine Throughout the 1960s and 1970s three separate vaccine trials were conducted on Irish children on behalf of the multinational drugs company The Wellcome Foundation, which is now known as GlaxoSmithKline.



Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



PHILIP Delaney was a vulnerable six-month-old baby when he was first injected with the unauthorised 'five-in-one' vaccine. Over the next two months, he was given the combined jab on three separate occasions in an apparently secret trial. Now, more than 40 years later, he is determined to know why he was given the jab in 1965 at the Bessborough mother and baby home in Co Cork. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s three separate vaccine trials were conducted on Irish children on behalf of the multinational drugs company The Wellcome Foundation, which is now known as GlaxoSmithKline. A report drawn up by the Department of Health in 2000, by its then chief medical officer Dr James Kiely, confirmed the existence of these trials. It found 211 children were administered vaccines -- 123 of whom were resident in children's homes in Dublin, Cork and the midlands. But unlike these victims, Philip has never been able to find out why he was given a vaccine that was never provided to the rest of the public. And, crucially, if it was part of a larger vaccine trial involving children in Bessborough. Born John Martin to Margaret Finnegan on March 30, 1965, in Bessborough, he was given a routine BCG vaccine -- like every other child in the nation. But that was where the comparisons stopped. In a sinister twist, he received an unknown 'five-in-one' vaccine which had an unprecedented mixture of polio, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus. And unknown to Philip it would never be used on the general public again. According to records Philip obtained from the adoption agency Cunamh, he was given the experimental vaccine on three occasions. But his birth mother Margaret insisted she had no knowledge this mixture was being administered to him. Margaret lived and cared for Philip at the home until he was adopted. "I was shocked when I heard he had received the vaccine. We were never told anything about any sort of vaccine," she told the Irish Independent. "I am angry he was given the injection without my consent. The consequences could have been more serious," she said. She became pregnant with Philip while working in Wales and was referred to the Cunamh agency in February 1965 at the age of 21. Fearing her parents would react badly to the news of her pregnancy, she gave him up for adoption. Vera and John Delaney, from Walkinstown, Co Dublin, were delighted when the toddler was handed to them. They named the little boy Philip. But just a few days later, Mrs Delaney was stunned when a doctor arrived at her door to administer the final tranche of the vaccine. Despite the four decades that have since passed, Mrs Delaney, who went on to adopt four other children, said she remembers the day clearly. "The doctor came out and said she was giving him a five-in-one injection and that it would cover everything. I had never heard of that injection, but he was our first baby so we didn't really know what to expect. "She said she would be back in a couple of weeks to take blood to check if the injection had taken." This is confirmed by Philip's records, which show social worker Anne O'Donoghue noted the doctor had called and that she was due again in May. "She called but before she left she said Philip should never have been sent for adoption, saying that he was one of 20 children trying out this new vaccine. She was angry and saying she had to go all over the country to look for these children." Frightened by the encounter, Mrs Delaney was afraid the doctor would stop her from adopting Philip, but the order was finally made official on May 4, 1966. But the thought still niggled the new mother and she brought Philip to her local clinic to ensure he was protected from all disease. "I mentioned the five-in-one vaccine and they thought I was mad. They just gave him an oral polio vaccine and nothing for measles," she said. A few months later Philip was struck down with measles. "He got it quite bad and was very sick at the time. He also got very bad asthma in later life and I don't know if this was to do with the vaccine," she said. For Philip, the knowledge that he had received the vaccine only came after he obtained his medical files some months ago. He is still in shock, but now wants answers as to why it happened. He insisted he has not ruled out going down the legal route to bring whoever administered the experimental vaccine to justice. "I want to get answers. I want to know why I was given this vaccine and who gave it to me," he said. - Patricia McDonagh Irish Independent
Edit Links2010-11-09 Child Migrants Program [External Link]

Child Migrants Program An estimated 150,000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967.



,Australia,



"Child Migrants Programme" An estimated 150,000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967. Many of these children were sent to orphanages, foster homes and institutions run by religious orders, where they were used as a free source of labor and many were sexually, physically and emotionally abused and neglected. These children were classified as orphans although most were not. The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom. This program was carried out with the complicity of the Methodist Church, the Catholic Church and the Salvation Army among others. At least 10,000 children some as young as 3 were shipped to Australia after World War II, most to join the ranks of the “Forgotten Australians”, the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the “Stolen Generation”, the children of Australian Aborigines, forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions. In 2008 Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd apologized to the approximately 500,000 “forgotten Australians” and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimized by the Child Migrants Programme. But, is an apology enough for the unerasable damaged caused to thousands of victims?... Child Trafficking Survivors Sue Catholic Religious Orders martes 9 de noviembre de 2010 Two Australian-based Catholic religious orders, the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Order of the Sisters of Mercy, have found themselves on the potentially-expensive end of a lawsuit for alleged child trafficking which took place over 50 years ago. The suit was brought by three Maltese citizens, who claim that the religious orders brought them to Australia as children under the pretense of being educated. However, they claim that instead of being sent to school, their documents were confiscated and they were forced to work for and sexually abused by the Brothers. To make matters even worse, these three survivors claim to be only a tiny fraction of hundreds of children subjected to the same fate. The lawsuit claims that the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Order of the Sisters of Mercy targeted poor families in Britain and Malta, asking for their children and promising to educate the kids in Australia. In reality, the Brothers and Sisters were supposed to be finding orphans in need of an education. For this orphan education program, they received funding from the British, Australian, and Maltese governments. The money was intended to go toward the children’s housing, food, and education expenses. However, according to plaintiff Emmanuel Ellul, the orders kept the money for themselves. They then forced the children to work on the commercial farms controlled by the Brothers, without pay and with frequent beatings. To feed themselves, the children were reduced to begging for food on the street and foraging in the pig troughs on the farm. In addition to the forced labor, several of the children were abused and raped by the Brothers. Over 10,000 children immigrated from Britain to Australia between 1947 and 1967, the years during which this child trafficking scam operated. It's estimated that at least 300 of those children were victims of forced labor once they arrived in Australia. In 2001, the Australian government acknowledged the complaints of the "working boys," as the child victims of this scam eventually came to be called. They apologized for the abuses, and admitted that many of the children brought to Australia during this time were not orphans, but children lured or stolen from their families. And now that the survivors are all adults, some in their 60s, they are finally seeking justice for their stolen childhoods via a lawsuit. Many human trafficking scams rely on the idea of building trust to lure a victim away from protection, and using the front of a religious organization is a powerful and despicable way to do that. What poor family wouldn't trust a group of Catholic sisters offering to educate their child? Isn't that what nuns do? Perhaps it's because I was raised in the Catholic Church, but I find this story incites a rare and balanced blend of heartbreak and anger. How on earth could this have been allowed to continue for 20 years? I know the Catholic Church is no stranger to scandal -- especially as regards the sexual abuse of young boys -- but couple that with the forced labor, the beatings, the lies to impoverished families, and the blatant racketeering. It's an additional layer of abhorrence that goes a step beyond usual evil. Perhaps this lawsuit will help the survivors find justice, the Catholic Church and government of Australia accept responsibility, and the families who lost children experience closure. Perhaps it won't. But if nothing else, I hope it helps children today stay safe, as we all realize that even a wolf in nun's clothing is still a wolf.
Edit Links2010-09-21 Following steps of Mary MacKillop [External Link]

Bishop of Rockhampton association with Mary MacKillop and Mackay Sisters of St Joseph



Australia,,AHFbVrf8Ibx,



IT may have been wet, but that didn't stop 45 members of the Rockhampton Diocese conducting a pilgrimage, following in the steps of Mary MacKillop and putting together a real picture of Mary's influential life. The members were in Mackay yesterday, visiting sites relating to Mary MacKillop's Sisters of Joseph order, which was in the Mackay area from 1872 to 1880. The group was planning on visiting St Patrick's church hall on River Street, the old Mackay cemetery, the site of the school the sisters ran at racecourse, the site of the old orphanage at Bucasia and MacKillop School at Andergrove. “There are many significant sites around the Mackay area including St Patrick's. We also wanted to go out to Bucasia where Father Bucas, who was the first parish priest of Mackay, started the orphanage,” Rockhampton Diocese bishop Brian Heenan said. “A lot of people don't know that Mary MacKillop came here on several occasions, although Queensland was just one of the states in which she did so much good work.” Though the weather may have added a soggy challenge to some of these visits, there was no doubt last night's mass at St Patrick's church was going to go ahead. In a strange twist of fate, in the late 1800s Mary MacKillop attempted to travel to Copperfield, however flooding of the Dawson River prevented her from making the journey. “Mary MacKillop came here in a flood, so we thought we should carry on with the pilgrimage in spirit,” Bishop Heenan said. The reasoning behind the pilgrimage, other than to celebrate Mary MacKillop's selfless work with those less fortunate, is to celebrate Mary's canonisation, the naming of her as a saint later this year in Rome. “We have all been getting our hearts ready for the canonisation event. This pilgrimage is a wonderful way to celebrate Mary MacKillop's life,” Bishop Heenan said. “We want to get out to the communities Mary MacKillop visited. She was always alert of what was happening in these smaller communities. A lot of people see Mary as an original Aussie battler – she wanted a fair go for all.”
Edit Links2010-09-14 Hand over vaccine files, State and drug firms told)



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Edit Links2010-08-03 Senator Boyce on behalf of Dr Jensen

Senator Boyce on behalf of Dr Jensen "Lost Innocents",



,Australia,

3 cemeteries - ask sue Boyse if she can give some guidance as to where the cemeteries are?

Edit Links2010-06-30 Neerkol Orphanage - Sara Rosetta [External Link]

Neerkol Orphanage - Sara Rosetta visits and photographs graves and buildings



General,Australia,



A couple of weeks ago I had the honour of being shown around an abandoned orphanage. I love old buildings, I love history, I love stories of the past, I was so excited. Little did I know at the time it was not a very nice orphanage. When I found this out we were just about to enter the grounds. Even worse was the stuff I was told before we entered the boys building. My heart was so heavy having a 2 year old boy and more empathy then I can handle. I warned everyone that I may come out crying. Lucky I had my camera to occupy me from the tears I wanted to shed for the poor little children that suffered monstrous dealings while they were there. Over 4000 children passed through this orphanage and fortunately there are good stories, well maybe not good, but they aren't bad. The stories that have drawn all the media attention to the place are ones that make this orphanage the worst in Queensland, they are ones that should not have ever happened to a person at all, especially not a child. Children. Repetitively. Or to the end. They are not my stories to tell, but some have been told and they are out there for you to read. Please don't go searching if you know you couldn't handle them. I did, and I couldn't. For days I hugged my little boy tight and fell asleep in pain for those children. Justice will never be served for those. Here are the pics I snapped along the way.
Edit Links2010-05-20 O-2404 Dr Jensen Senator Sue Boyse Page: 1

Community affairs committee,Dr Jensen, Senator Sue Boyse, Child abuse in Queensland

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Edit Links2010-05-20 O-2404 Dr Jensen Senator Sue Boyse Page: 2

Community affairs committee,Dr Jensen, Senator Sue Boyse, Child abuse in Queensland CC Tony Abbott CC Judith Adams CC Sen Helen Coonan All these sat on the inquiry

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Edit Links2010-04-13 Sin and innocence [External Link]

It's a strange sad business, the current outcry against the Catholic Church and the sexual abuse of kids by priests. The outrage has been so great that the cries have actually penetrated as far as the inner sanctum of Pope Benedict himself, Joseph Ratzinger that was, that donnish man who, when he was elected pontiff, said to his fellow cardinals that they had taken him where he did not want to go.



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It's a strange sad business, the current outcry against the Catholic Church and the sexual abuse of kids by priests. The outrage has been so great that the cries have actually penetrated as far as the inner sanctum of Pope Benedict himself, Joseph Ratzinger that was, that donnish man who, when he was elected pontiff, said to his fellow cardinals that they had taken him where he did not want to go. Well, the finger is now pointed that under his watch as Archbishop of Munich, Ratzinger - through the agency of one of his underlings - allowed a priest who'd been guilty of paedophile offences to continue with his ministry. There's a grave irony in all this because this very scholarly and attentive Pope - Ratzinger in religion, at least as much as Kevin Rudd in politics, is the supreme bureaucratic mandarin of the church - has being vigilant to the point of severity in dealing with the problem. Far more so than the burly Pole who preceded him, John Paul II, who was never personally tainted by the scandal that has been rocking away at the church for ages now. Why? It can't be quite as simple, even in our image raddled world, as the fact that John Paul looked like a prize fighter, skied like an obsessive for as long as his health lasted, threw back the wine and food and smoked - an awe-inspiring detail - just one cigarette after dinner. Whereas Benedict loves cats and relaxes playing Mozart. No, it can't just be the muscular Christianity of the one and the theology-inflected thoughtfulness of the other that can be so easily made to look furtive. But images and mythologies come at us from every side with this issue. To begin with, we live in a world that wears as the badge of its secularism an obsession with sexuality so marked and so self defining that we think the Catholic ideal of a celibate clergy (and, all the more so, as celibate and exclusively male clergy) as downright sick. If we cut some slack to other religions, to Hindus or Buddhists or Muslims in this respect, we think that in the western dispensation this is a denial of nature and we're at least half inclined - when we're being psychologically deterministic rather than judgemental - to think that the crisis in the church is the consequence of this aberration. Well, you certainly sometimes hear from Catholic insiders that some religious are driven by the loneliness of their calling to behaviour that they would never have conceived of. Obviously that may well be the case just as single sex worlds - boarding schools, prisons, the Navy- may encourage an artificial homosexuality. As a previous generation, boisterously represented by Jeff Kennett, used to say, "If you can't get a girl get a Melbourne Grammar boy." Well, yes, but boys being boys together is no real reason for thinking that men (however much they may be overgrown boys, as some offending clerics no doubt were) should prey on boys or girls. Nor should it tarnish a time-honoured ideal or - if you want to talk turkey - should the lapse from that ideal necessarily or in calamitous numbers take the form of child abuse. But does it, though? The numbers do not bear out the notion of priests and brothers as some race of pariahs peculiarly given to the rape - whether it's literally coercive or persuasive it's liable to be technical rape when someone is underage - of the kids in their charge. The figures don't bear it out in terms of percentages that any young person is more likely to be interfered with by a man of the cloth than he or she is by a social worker or a scoutmaster or the babysitter down the road. It simply that the duty of care in the case of the Catholic Church is statistically immense. It was the church who ran the orphanages and the schools and who ministered to the poor and down and out long before governments knew the name of mercy. And the priests and co. continue to do so on a massive scale so that of course they will appear to be numerically greater - as well as much more visible because of the catholicity of their calling - than any other grouping. The church can also be sued and the clergy can be execrated as a race of child molesters who at some level were bound to be because they deny sex so that it comes and gets them (and everyone else) in the darkest and nastiest way. The secular world, of course, pretends it is sitting pretty with sex. Sex is what sells hamburgers and glossy magazines, it governs our choice of newsreaders, it's something we want as an extra diversion in our films, and it's something we entertain ourselves with privately on the Internet (except for the pervs who get off on kids who should be sent to jail for the stuff they look at). That last caveat is part of a giveaway. Everyone's teenager is, at least on the discernible surface, far more knowing about sex than people even in their 30s now were 20 years ago. And it's a fact of life that just as films are increasingly marketed for mid teens, so ideals of beauty have been getting younger and younger for decades. (Leonardo DiCaprio is now a pudgy thirtysomething. It's 15 years or so since Germaine Greer denounced magazines for tweens which were all about getting it.) And yet in the midst of this proliferating eroticisation we hold to the ideal of the innocence of the child like a last stronghold of sexual purity. It makes sense, in its way, that mythologies have their own coherence, that a world which defines itself as primarily sexual should define priests as sexually aberrant (therefore predatory) and kids as the potential objects of absolute violation in a world that admits of no other form of purity. One of the things which gets lost in the midst of all this is the fundamental Christian (and definitionally Catholic) belief that sin can be forgiven - murder and rape and child molestation along with highway robbery and defrauding widows - and that it is the duty of people who sign up to the system to hate the sin, not the sinner. And along with this too goes the strong belief in the freedom of the individual will. One of the things we've inherited from the Christian tradition is the belief in mercy. If you believe that we are, in the words of Mr Casey in James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, "all sinners and black sinners" then you will throw yourself on the mercy of whatever spirit there is and resolve to sin no more. It should not be beyond all powers of understanding to think that some priests who had offended could reform themselves. No doubt they sometimes did. Christ's injunction to "render unto Caesar" cuts both ways. Most people faced with the wrongdoing of their own intimates, their family, would hope and pray for reformation. Not every lawyer or businessman who's ever done a shoddy deal has a permanent commitment to iniquity. And sexual behaviour of one kind or another is a one-to-one map of the world. Isn't everyone guilty of it one way or another? No one wants to see kids interfered with and every sane thing should be done to prevent it. But when we sit in judgement on these churchmen of a few decades ago we should remember that the bishops believed in mercy, they believed people who stuffed up could come good and they believed that what the Church could do for the world was a wonderful thing, whatever the sometimes failings of its ministers. One of the strangest things about the current witchhunt is that it treats secular justice as a kind of religious absolute. The only thing that can ever be done with the malefactor in this area is to throw him to the hounds of secular justice. Never mind that at least some misbehaviour in this area seems to be a consequence of chain reactions (i.e. suffering the same thing as a child), let alone in the treatment of sexual offenders in prison. Again we're dealing with unexamined mythologies. But we should not be too quick to decry mercy. It is very odd that bishops who have tried to practice mercy tend, in a context of hysteria, to be tarred with the branch of the whole horror. Because they are deemed not to have attacked with maximum stringency, they are treated as if they had been complicit in the sexual offence. It also brought down Peter Hollingworth when he was Governor General. Because he had not acted harshly to a particular priest he was execrated as if he was responsible for the primary offence. It is crazy that the same kind of mythological thinking could be applied to the Pope. Peter Craven is one of Australia's best known critics and cultural commentators.
Edit Links2010-04-11 Queensland apology to Children in Mental Hospitals

Queensland apology to Children in Mental Hospitals



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By BARBARA LANE Published: April 11, 2010 On March 24, 2010, at Parliament House in Brisbane, the Queensland Government gave an Apology to former children under state care who were inappropriately placed in adult mental hospitals. The Queensland Apology was delivered by Deputy Premier and Minister for Health, Paul Lucas, and Minister for Communities, Karen Struthers. The Apology reads: “To those who as children in the care of the State of Queensland suffered in any way while resident in an adult mental health facility 1 The Government acknowledges that the apology offered in 1999 following the Forde Inquiry did not extend to those who, while under a care and control or care and protection order of the State, suffered maltreatment or neglect or were inappropriately placed in Queensland adult mental health facilities. We acknowledge the special vulnerability of children in state care who were treated as inpatients in the adult mental health system and who, through the circumstances of their placements, witnessed or experienced maltreatment or neglect. We acknowledge that for some, such placements led to an incorrect diagnosis of mental illness, which has had a significant impact on their lives. We sincerely apologise to those who, as children, suffered in any way while resident in adult mental health facilities and express deep sorrow and regret for the hurt and distress suffered by those who were victims of abuse. We recognize the value of formal reconciliation experiences in healing the hurt some have suffered, and undertake to plan these in consultation with those who were harmed in care. We are committed to doing all we reasonably can to ensure that children in our care are protected from harm as a paramount consideration. Further, we are committed to ongoing review and improvement of our services to children and families.” It was a simple service held in a marquee in the courtyard of Parliament House, with about twenty-five care leavers attending, some with their children. The recipients asked that it not be a media circus. Strategic Policy and Planning Officer for the Department of Communities, Robyn Etherington said, “It has been a privilege to be able to attend.” The high levels of abuse and neglect suffered by children in Australian institutions were exposed by the Forde Inquiry (1999) and later the Australian Senate’s Forgotten Australians Inquiry (2004). According to the Forde Inquiry report, transfers of children to adult psychiatric hospitals constituted “systems abuse”. Children were sometimes placed in adult psychiatric hospitals for misbehaviour or through misdiagnosis. Already-traumatized children were inappropriately incarcerated in places like Osler House, a maximum security ward of Wolston Park Hospital, which also held prisoners deemed too mentally unstable to be held in adult jails. There, children like the small-bodied, fifteen-year-old Susan Treweek witnessed and suffered horrific abuse in an ancient asylum building while living in daily fear of shock treatment and abuse by other patients and staff. Eight years later, Sue managed to escape from Wolston Park Hospital and has never needed medication or psychiatric inpatient services since. She now runs her own successful business, which a year ago, due to high demand, amalgamated with Centacare. Queensland recently offered a redress scheme to former state wards, but only experiences in institutions covered by the Forde Inquiry were allowed to be addressed. The Forde Inquiry did not cover adult mental hospitals as they were not classified as children’s homes. Some information about the abuse in mental hospitals was accepted from witnesses at the Senate Inquiry into the Forgotten Australians, a national inquiry, but Queensland has not offered survivors this opportunity. Tears were seen in many eyes at the apology ceremony when a wreath was laid in memory of the many that did not survive long enough to hear the government’s apology. Sue Treweek lobbied for many years for this apology. Asked “How did you feel about the apology”, she has replied: Also... * The Bell Curve * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * RFID, Human Tracking and Microchipping * A Long Walk to the Short Bus “The fight to get to this point was so hard and the personal cost to my family and our lives was huge. On the day, I weighed up whether it was all worth it, and asked myself if, given the time again, I would have fought so hard. The answer is yes…There were silent survivors who could not be there and really would have no concept of what we have achieved, for a variety of reasons. This, I feel, was their day too. And I hope it sends a clear message that society will always have people who fight like we do, to make sure even those who have no voice will be protected from having this happen to them. Just because a disabled person is unable to scream their pain and be heard, or survive and fight for their rights, does not make them less worthy of justice and quality care.” Flickspin writing community Sue continued, “I felt a weight lift from me, and a sense of closure…The moral and just thing for our government to do is …to negotiate directly with those of us who survived because we are the only ones who know and can comprehend what we suffered and how this affects our lives. We deserve monetary compensation/ ex gratia payments to show this was not another empty apology without consequence.” No compensation has yet been offered to survivors
Edit Links2010-04-11 Forgotten Australians are Now Remembered Australians [External Link]

Forgotten Australians are Now Remembered Australians Many politicians stood and spoke on the issues



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On November 16, 2009, a National Apology was made to those called the Forgotten Australians. The apology came from both sides of Parliament. 1 The forgotten Australians were the approximately 500,000 Australian children who spent time in children’s institutions and out-of-home care during the last century, many of whom report histories of severe abuse and neglect. During his speech, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that he hoped those he was addressing would, from now on, be known as “Remembered Australians”. The then leader of the opposition, Malcolm Turnbull also made a speech which many system-leavers found very moving. One of the most important things said was, “We believe you”. 2 In the Northern Rivers, a group has been established to provide information, support and referral to those who were under state care arrangements during the last century and who live or work in the Northern Rivers area. The group has chosen the name, “Now-remembered Australians” and was formed after the national apology took place. Now-Remembered Australians (NRA) as a group aim towards establishing a shop front in Lismore and providing assistance and advocacy for remembered Australians. They are currently meeting fortnightly at Caddies in Carrington St, Lismore, at 1pm on the second and fourth Fridays of each month. They also hold a barbecue on the third Saturday of the month at 2pm in Heritage Park. NRA can be contacted at nowrememberedaustralians@gmail.com by writing to: Now-Remembered Australians PO Box 894 Lismore 2480 You can also visit the website at http://www.nowrememberedaustralians.com Reactions to the apology have been varied, and there are those who will never be able to accept it, whose hurt and shame runs too deep for mere words to affect. Others feel it has been a necessary step on the road to recovery, but that much more is needed. Also... * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * Children Placed in Adult Mental Institutions * Queensland Apology to Children in Mental Hospitals * Aussie, Aussie, Aussie... NRA member Graeme Schipp grew up in homes in NSW. He did not hear about the National Apology in time to attend in person. In fact, many people did not hear about the apology until after the event, and there will be those who are still unaware it has occurred. Graeme said, “The NRA group has been really helpful and supportive and understanding, and we need that.” Other members expressed gratitude for the relief the group has given them from isolation and associated depression. Flickspin writing community The Commonwealth Government has, so far, refused to offer financial redress to former forgotten Australians, and the states are varied in their responses. Some have set up redress schemes and some have not. New South Wales does not yet have a redress scheme, but recently issued a state apology to care leavers.
Edit Links2010-04-09 Letter to Anna Bligh & Nicolla Roxson Health Minister & Jenny Macklin - Pamela Buss Page: 2

Drug experiments Connects with "defective children" mentally defective - sending them to Mental Institutions On the amounts of drugs and experiments conducted - not included in the Inquiry - these were State children

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Edit Links2010-04-09 Letter to Anna Bligh & Nicolla Roxson Health Minister & Jenny Macklin - Pamela Buss Page: 3

Drug experiments Connects with "defective children" mentally defective - sending them to Mental Institutions On the amounts of drugs and experiments conducted - not included in the Inquiry - these were State children

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,Australia,



Edit Links2010-04-09 Letter to Anna Bligh & Nicolla Roxson Health Minister & Jenny Macklin - Pamela Buss Page: 4

Drug experiments Connects with "defective children" mentally defective - sending them to Mental Institutions On the amounts of drugs and experiments conducted - not included in the Inquiry - these were State children

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,Australia,



Edit Links2010-04-09 Letter to Anna Bligh & Nicolla Roxson Health Minister & Jenny Macklin - Pamela Buss Page: 5

Drug experiments Connects with "defective children" mentally defective - sending them to Mental Institutions On the amounts of drugs and experiments conducted - not included in the Inquiry - these were State children

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Edit Links2010-04-09 Letter to Anna Bligh & Nicolla Roxson Health Minister & Jenny Macklin - Pamela Buss Page: 1

Drug experiments Connects with "defective children" mentally defective - sending them to Mental Institutions On the amounts of drugs and experiments conducted - not included in the Inquiry - these were State children The uses of dubious and unsavory service providers: Mention of Chermside and the Deep sleep scandal - note Peter O'Callaghan used the services of a psychiatrist Rishard Ball who was also involved in the Chermside Deep Sleep scandal - O'Callaghan used Ball as a regular provider of psychiatric services to victims of clergy sexual abuse. Ball retired around 2007. The Melbourne process continues to use suspect providers namely Susan Sharkey who has been repeatedly accused of medical and psychological abuse ref: audio and transcript re: John Brown

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Edit Links2010-04-04 Thank you for your email to the Leader of the Opposition, the Hon Tony Abbott MP

The usual from our politicians



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Edit Links2010-03-24 Queensland apology to Children in Mental Hospitals [External Link]

On March 24, 2010, at Parliament House in Brisbane, the Queensland Government gave an Apology to former children under state care who were inappropriately placed in adult mental hospitals.



,Australia,



By BARBARA LANE Published: April 11, 2010 On March 24, 2010, at Parliament House in Brisbane, the Queensland Government gave an Apology to former children under state care who were inappropriately placed in adult mental hospitals. The Queensland Apology was delivered by Deputy Premier and Minister for Health, Paul Lucas, and Minister for Communities, Karen Struthers. The Apology reads: “To those who as children in the care of the State of Queensland suffered in any way while resident in an adult mental health facility 1 The Government acknowledges that the apology offered in 1999 following the Forde Inquiry did not extend to those who, while under a care and control or care and protection order of the State, suffered maltreatment or neglect or were inappropriately placed in Queensland adult mental health facilities. We acknowledge the special vulnerability of children in state care who were treated as inpatients in the adult mental health system and who, through the circumstances of their placements, witnessed or experienced maltreatment or neglect. We acknowledge that for some, such placements led to an incorrect diagnosis of mental illness, which has had a significant impact on their lives. We sincerely apologise to those who, as children, suffered in any way while resident in adult mental health facilities and express deep sorrow and regret for the hurt and distress suffered by those who were victims of abuse. We recognize the value of formal reconciliation experiences in healing the hurt some have suffered, and undertake to plan these in consultation with those who were harmed in care. We are committed to doing all we reasonably can to ensure that children in our care are protected from harm as a paramount consideration. Further, we are committed to ongoing review and improvement of our services to children and families.” It was a simple service held in a marquee in the courtyard of Parliament House, with about twenty-five care leavers attending, some with their children. The recipients asked that it not be a media circus. Strategic Policy and Planning Officer for the Department of Communities, Robyn Etherington said, “It has been a privilege to be able to attend.” The high levels of abuse and neglect suffered by children in Australian institutions were exposed by the Forde Inquiry (1999) and later the Australian Senate’s Forgotten Australians Inquiry (2004). According to the Forde Inquiry report, transfers of children to adult psychiatric hospitals constituted “systems abuse”. Children were sometimes placed in adult psychiatric hospitals for misbehaviour or through misdiagnosis. Already-traumatized children were inappropriately incarcerated in places like Osler House, a maximum security ward of Wolston Park Hospital, which also held prisoners deemed too mentally unstable to be held in adult jails. There, children like the small-bodied, fifteen-year-old Susan Treweek witnessed and suffered horrific abuse in an ancient asylum building while living in daily fear of shock treatment and abuse by other patients and staff. Eight years later, Sue managed to escape from Wolston Park Hospital and has never needed medication or psychiatric inpatient services since. She now runs her own successful business, which a year ago, due to high demand, amalgamated with Centacare. Queensland recently offered a redress scheme to former state wards, but only experiences in institutions covered by the Forde Inquiry were allowed to be addressed. The Forde Inquiry did not cover adult mental hospitals as they were not classified as children’s homes. Some information about the abuse in mental hospitals was accepted from witnesses at the Senate Inquiry into the Forgotten Australians, a national inquiry, but Queensland has not offered survivors this opportunity. Tears were seen in many eyes at the apology ceremony when a wreath was laid in memory of the many that did not survive long enough to hear the government’s apology. Sue Treweek lobbied for many years for this apology. Asked “How did you feel about the apology”, she has replied: Also... * The Bell Curve * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * RFID, Human Tracking and Microchipping * A Long Walk to the Short Bus “The fight to get to this point was so hard and the personal cost to my family and our lives was huge. On the day, I weighed up whether it was all worth it, and asked myself if, given the time again, I would have fought so hard. The answer is yes…There were silent survivors who could not be there and really would have no concept of what we have achieved, for a variety of reasons. This, I feel, was their day too. And I hope it sends a clear message that society will always have people who fight like we do, to make sure even those who have no voice will be protected from having this happen to them. Just because a disabled person is unable to scream their pain and be heard, or survive and fight for their rights, does not make them less worthy of justice and quality care.” Flickspin writing community Sue continued, “I felt a weight lift from me, and a sense of closure…The moral and just thing for our government to do is …to negotiate directly with those of us who survived because we are the only ones who know and can comprehend what we suffered and how this affects our lives. We deserve monetary compensation/ ex gratia payments to show this was not another empty apology without consequence.” No compensation has yet been offered to survivors
Edit Links2010-03-12 Dr Jensen to Kevin Rudd Apology Statement Page: 1

Dr Jensen Apology Statement

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Edit Links2010-03-12 Dr Jensen Apology Statement Page: 2

Dr Jensen Apology Statement

2

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Edit Links2010-01-22 Qld to Apologise to State Wards in Adult Mental Health [External Link]

During the last week in February, 2010, the State of Queensland will issue an apology to former children in state care who were placed in adult mental institutions.



General,Australia,



Qld to Apologise to State Wards in Adult Mental Health By BARBARA LANE Published: January 22, 2010 1 During the last week in February, 2010, the State of Queensland will issue an apology to former children in state care who were placed in adult mental institutions. During the last century, children under care and control or care and protection orders were regularly placed in adult mental facilities, some after suffering reactions to drugs they were given in children’s homes or trauma from abuse in the homes. The government will acknowledge that for some children, this led to an incorrect diagnosis of mental illness, which has had a significant impact on their lives. The government will acknowledge that children were inappropriately placed and witnessed and suffered maltreatment and neglect in Queensland mental health facilities. Also... * The Bell Curve * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * RFID, Human Tracking and Microchipping * A Long Walk to the Short Bus In1999, in response to the Forde Commission of Inquiry into the Abuse of Children. in Queensland Institutions, the state government apologized to those who were harmed in church or state run children’s institutions in Queensland. This apology did not extend to children who suffered abuse or neglect in adult mental health facilities. Dialogue was entered into with survivors of abuse in children’s institutions through the Historical Abuse Network, and the state established and funded the Forde Foundation Trust Fund. Flickspin writing community This apology will open the way for those placed in adult psychiatric hospitals to access services for which they previously may not have qualified and to be involved in a consultation process for formal reconciliation. It is, for many, an important part of the healing process. See also: Alliance for Forgotten Australians Care Leavers Australia Network
Edit Links2010-01-10 Forgotten Australians re now remembered Australians [External Link]

Forgotten Australians re now remembered Australians



Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,Canada,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,General,Incompetence,KQkkUxjfknGg,Medical Issues,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,VOLPMnWXGnTr,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,

abusedocs/forgotten-australians-remembered-1.jpg

Forgotten Australians are Now Remembered Australians By BARBARA LANE Published: January 22, 2010 On November 16, 2009, a National Apology was made to those called the Forgotten Australians. The apology came from both sides of Parliament. 1 The forgotten Australians were the approximately 500,000 Australian children who spent time in children’s institutions and out-of-home care during the last century, many of whom report histories of severe abuse and neglect. During his speech, Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that he hoped those he was addressing would, from now on, be known as “Remembered Australians”. The then leader of the opposition, Malcolm Turnbull also made a speech which many system-leavers found very moving. One of the most important things said was, “We believe you”. 2 In the Northern Rivers, a group has been established to provide information, support and referral to those who were under state care arrangements during the last century and who live or work in the Northern Rivers area. The group has chosen the name, “Now-remembered Australians” and was formed after the national apology took place. Now-Remembered Australians (NRA) as a group aim towards establishing a shop front in Lismore and providing assistance and advocacy for remembered Australians. They are currently meeting fortnightly at Caddies in Carrington St, Lismore, at 1pm on the second and fourth Fridays of each month. They also hold a barbecue on the third Saturday of the month at 2pm in Heritage Park. NRA can be contacted at nowrememberedaustralians@gmail.com by writing to: Now-Remembered Australians PO Box 894 Lismore 2480 You can also visit the website at http://www.nowrememberedaustralians.com Reactions to the apology have been varied, and there are those who will never be able to accept it, whose hurt and shame runs too deep for mere words to affect. Others feel it has been a necessary step on the road to recovery, but that much more is needed. Also... * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * Children Placed in Adult Mental Institutions * Queensland Apology to Children in Mental Hospitals * Aussie, Aussie, Aussie... NRA member Graeme Schipp grew up in homes in NSW. He did not hear about the National Apology in time to attend in person. In fact, many people did not hear about the apology until after the event, and there will be those who are still unaware it has occurred. Graeme said, “The NRA group has been really helpful and supportive and understanding, and we need that.” Other members expressed gratitude for the relief the group has given them from isolation and associated depression. Flickspin writing community The Commonwealth Government has, so far, refused to offer financial redress to former forgotten Australians, and the states are varied in their responses. Some have set up redress schemes and some have not. New South Wales does not yet have a redress scheme, but recently issued a state apology to care leavers. Comments 1. Josephine R A "Cavanough"LittleHawk on February 12, 2010 Thankyou My name is Josephine I need A helping hand please I live S.A.I have my First forum/support group.On the 22nd feb 2010.I have been threaten and abused by those here who feel they would prefer to be forgotten I say 'each to their own" I feel Remembered is for Me and ask for support PLEASE I dont have any support from funding..But I have Prof F.Briggs as my Consultant.Amanada Risthworth MP is supportting.The venue is supplied By Youth Xchange..I have limited resourses. 2. noni on September 8, 2010 my grandmother and her four sisters grew up in king edward home darby street newcastle nsw my mother was adopted from newcastle at one month old in 1937 i was told that i was born at a roslyn private arncliff nsw but can only find a roslyn babies home rockdale nsw were or are thay connected in the late 1950s the search continues any one who may have info about roslyn babies home and or hospital please enlighten me !!!!!!!!!!!!! 3. globespinner on September 12, 2010 Hi Noni. Rockdale Private Hospital is at 30 Forest Rd Arncliffe. Roslyn Hall, otherwise known as Rockdale Babies Home or Roslyn Babies Home was at 89 Cameron St Rockdale and was open from 1894--1976. I hope this helps. More info can be gained from Post-Adoptive Resource Centre which is run by the Benevolent Society. Best of luck with your search! 4. noni on September 27, 2010 THANKYOU FOR EMAILING ME THIS INFO DO YOU KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT KING EDWARD CHILDRENS HOME DARBY STREET NEWCASTLE NSW IN THE 1920s AND 1930s AND HOW CAN I ACCESS MY GRAND MOTHERS FILE AND PHOTOS I WAS TOLD BY A MR. DARELL LIGHTFOOT WHO WORKED AT KING EDWARD CHILDRENS HOME IN THE 1960s THAT HE HAD SEEN A PHOTO ALBUM!!!!!!!!!!!!! MY GRAND MOTHER AND HER OLDER SISTER AND HER HUSBAND WERE BAPTIZED INTO THE CHRISTADELPHIAN FAITH AT QURINNDI NSW WHO ARE THE CHRISTADELPHIANS??? NONI 2010 5. globespinner on October 4, 2010 Hi Noni, Apparently King Edward Children's Home at Bar Beach in Newcastle opened in 1935. I cannot find any artifacts from the home. Apparently there were six references to that home in the Senate Inquiry (Forgotten Australians). I don't think you can actually get your Grandmother's file, only your own. If you contact the Department of Communities in NSW and ask them to send you a request for state ward records form, they will post one to you. Or, if you email nowrememberedaustralians@gmail.com and send me your address or phone number , I can arrange to send you a form to get your own files. You might also like to talk to a free counsellor at CLAN (Care Leavers Australia Network). You can phone 1800 008 774 to make an appointment with Natalie, the counsellor there, who may help in the process of accessing records. The Christadelphians have a helpline: 0407 558 819 or for the North West area, where Quirindi is, there is supposed to be a Sister Margaret Bensley as the contact person. Her number is listed as 02 6765 6118, or you can write to PO Box 171 Quirindi 2343. Good luck! Hope this helps a bit. Regards, Barbara 6. noni on October 5, 2010 THANKYOU BARBARA FOR ALL THE INFO I DID FILL IN THE SUPPLY AUTHORITY FORM IT WAS SENT BACK TO ME AND SAID NOT IN THIS STATE !!!!!!!!!!!!! SO ONLY CONFORMATION FOR NSW!!!!!! RECORDS FROM THE ARCHIVES AT THE ROCKS TWO GLOBE STREET SYDNEY SHOW ON A PAGE IN A RECORDS BOOK A RECORD OF A HOME BIRTH IN 1928 NO MENTION FOR A MAIL OR A FEMAIL ONLY 1928 MY GRANDMOTHER WAS BORN IN 1915 SHE WAS IN FOSTER CARE AT THAT TIME IN NEWCASTLE NSW AND IN THOSE DAYS THE CHILD WAS REMOVED WHO WAS THAT CHILD ?????? ANOTHER REMOVED FAMILY MEMBER 7. Annie on November 9, 2010 Hi, I was in Roslyn Hall babies home Rockdale NSW: can't find much info either but did get a copy of my "admission " page and "inmate" status. 8. Darlene Mckay on November 13, 2010 Hi guys, thank- you for your website, thanks shaz for all the info, will see you at the next meeting. My husband and l were invited to the apoligy on the 16th, we went and took my mother-in-law, yes it was moveing and l felt slightly validated as a person,but, and its a big but, lve never felt so lost in all my 50yrs of trying to deal with my past, l was in about 17 different placeings never foster, in Victoria. Now its all on top of me again,i'd had therapy years ago to try and make some sence of it,,,,,,, all there bits and piece of my past that they call my records have shattered me. i too have to wonder why, and wonder what they were thinking..... Regards Darlene Mckay, [ nee Warren ] 9. globespinner on November 14, 2010 Hi Darlene. Many people experienced a form of retraumatisation upon going through their records. You are not alone. I look forward to seeing you at the next meeting.
Edit Links2010-01-06 The term 'mental defective' was used in Victoria from around the 1930s to the late 1960s to describe people with intellectual [External Link]

Mental defective Alternative Names * Intellectually disabled * Mentally retarded Summary The term 'mental defective' was used in Victoria from around the 1930s to the late 1960s to describe people with intellectual disabilities. Open all



Australia,,



Edit Links2010-00-00 Orphans experimented on without consent

Orphans experimented on without consent http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/shortboys/web/broadmeadows.html



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Cruel Doctors web site - abuse their position of trust -

Edit Links2010-00-00 Banished Babies in Australia - Child Migrants - Senate Inquiry [External Link]

Banished Babies in Australia - Child Migrants - Senate Inquiry Children were abused in Australian orphanages for over 80 years Child Trafficking Survivors Sue Catholic Religious Orders National Apology for Victims of Forced Adoption Policies Everything comes to light:Senate calls inquiry into forced adoptions



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"Child Migrants Programme" An estimated 150,000 British children were sent to overseas colonies and countries in the commonwealth such as Australia. This practice was in effect from the beginning of the nineteenth century until 1967. Many of these children were sent to orphanages, foster homes and institutions run by religious orders, where they were used as a free source of labor and many were sexually, physically and emotionally abused and neglected. These children were classified as orphans although most were not. The prime consideration was money as it was cheaper to care for children in commonwealth countries than it was in the United Kingdom. This program was carried out with the complicity of the Methodist Church, the Catholic Church and the Salvation Army among others. At least 10,000 children some as young as 3 were shipped to Australia after World War II, most to join the ranks of the “Forgotten Australians”, the term given for those who experienced care in foster homes and institutions in the 20th century. Among these Forgotten Australians were members of the “Stolen Generation”, the children of Australian Aborigines, forcibly removed from their homes and raised in white institutions. In 2008 Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd apologized to the approximately 500,000 “forgotten Australians” and in 2010 British Prime Minister Gordon Brown issued a similar apology to those who were victimized by the Child Migrants Programme. But, is an apology enough for the unerasable damaged caused to thousands of victims?... More than 150,000 women were separated from their babies and sent to catholic homes to be labor exploitated miércoles 17 de noviembre de 2010 November 2, 2006 Link A film tells the tragedy of postwar women whose babies were taken away A 17-year-old woman has been taken into custody for the crime of being pregnant but not married. During a night-time raid, Queensland police officers removed the woman from the home she shared with her partner and placed her in a prison holding cell. She was then transferred to the Holy Cross Catholic girl's home, to work without pay in the laundry until she gives birth. It is expected that a married couple will adopt the baby. IF THIS appeared in today's Age the reaction would be one of shock and disbelief. Surely the officers should be charged with kidnapping, the Catholic institution investigated for slavery and the woman counselled and compensated. But when it happened to Lily Arthur in 1967, Australia was a very different place. Single mothers were at the mercy of a postwar system that supported the illegal removal of illegitimate children from their mothers. The practice claimed the babies of more than 150,000 women. Gone to a Good Home, a Storyline Australia documentary, focuses on Arthur and her landmark case against the Queensland government. Arthur's story is no less heartbreaking than the others told in the film but her tragedy seems compounded by several factors. She wasn't under the age of consent and she wasn't a single mother-to-be. Her de facto partner Steve arrived at the hospital to propose and take his new family home. Lily, sedated and forbidden to see or hold her baby, was tricked into signing an adoption paper. "It was all about morals and morality," says producer Karen Berkman. "She had done the wrong thing by the standards of the day and she had to be punished and the child taken out of her care so it could be raised by 'good people', which is very sad." Lily Arthur, now in her 50s, works to reunite members of the Aboriginal stolen generation. She slow-burns with a terrible anger and a drive for justice. "The systems that we have in place in our society can't be trusted because there is evil when it comes to the authorities forcing their will on to you," she says. "I'd like to set the record straight on the way that we've been portrayed, as women who gave away their children." Arthur took the law into her own hands nine years ago, contacting her son, Tim, despite a veto from the adoption agency. The two recently returned from an adoption conference in New York and Tim has also met Steve. In the film, Steve and Lily look through childhood photographs of their son. "That's our boy," says Steve. Read more... Publicado por Banished Babies en 15:02 0 comentarios Etiquetas: forced adoption (1940-1980) Everything comes to light:Senate calls inquiry into forced adoptions November 15th, 2010 The Senate is to inquire into the Commonwealth's role in the forced adoption policies from the 1940s to the 1980s. Greens Senator Rachel Siewert has won support of the Senate for the issue to be considered by the Community Affairs References Committee. There have been calls for a national inquiry into the practice of forcing unwed mothers to give up their babies. Western Australia's Parliament has already issued a formal apology to women affected by the practice. ABCNews Read more... Publicado por Banished Babies en 13:45 0 comentarios Etiquetas: forced adoption (1940-1980) National Apology for Victims of Forced Adoption Policies November 4th, 2010 Source Senator SIEWERT (Western Australia) (10.55 am)—I move: That the Senate— (a) recognises the grief and anguish suffered by thousands of mothers who were victims of the forced adoption policies of the recent past; (b) acknowledges the recent apology given by the Western Australian Parliament to those mothers whose children were removed and given up for adoption from the late 1940s to the 1980s in that state; and (c) urges the Australian Government to commence the process of developing a national apology in consultation with state and territory governments, mothers and their families, experts and advocacy groups. Senator SHERRY (Tasmania—Minister for Small Business, Minister Assisting on Deregulation and Minister Assisting the Minister for Tourism) (10.55 am)— by leave— The Australian government recognises the pain and suffering of mothers and children separated by inappropriate and unethical past adoption practices. The government is committed to an effective and ongoing dialogue with women and their children affected by past adoption practices. The Australian government, together with the state and territory governments, has commissioned a joint national research study to study the experiences of people affected by past adoption practices, as well as the support and service needs of people affected by past adoption practices. The study demonstrates all jurisdictions’ commitment to understanding the pain and grief associated with past adoption practices. This new research will help us to better understand the experiences of people affected and, most importantly, to understand their current needs. The Australian Institute of Family Studies will consult widely with affected individuals in undertaking the joint national research study into past adoption practices. This study is the largest ever conducted into past adoption practices in this country. It will report back to community services ministers in all jurisdictions in 2012. The Australian government previously commissioned the Australian Institute of Family Studies to undertake a review of Australian research literature about past adoption practices and the impact on those affected. The literature review found that there is not currently a reliable evidence base for understanding the extent of past practices, the number of Australians who were affected and the long-term effects. Read more... Publicado por Banished Babies en 13:38 0 comentarios Etiquetas: forced adoption (1940-1980) Child Trafficking Survivors Sue Catholic Religious Orders martes 9 de noviembre de 2010 Two Australian-based Catholic religious orders, the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Order of the Sisters of Mercy, have found themselves on the potentially-expensive end of a lawsuit for alleged child trafficking which took place over 50 years ago. The suit was brought by three Maltese citizens, who claim that the religious orders brought them to Australia as children under the pretense of being educated. However, they claim that instead of being sent to school, their documents were confiscated and they were forced to work for and sexually abused by the Brothers. To make matters even worse, these three survivors claim to be only a tiny fraction of hundreds of children subjected to the same fate. The lawsuit claims that the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Order of the Sisters of Mercy targeted poor families in Britain and Malta, asking for their children and promising to educate the kids in Australia. In reality, the Brothers and Sisters were supposed to be finding orphans in need of an education. For this orphan education program, they received funding from the British, Australian, and Maltese governments. The money was intended to go toward the children’s housing, food, and education expenses. However, according to plaintiff Emmanuel Ellul, the orders kept the money for themselves. They then forced the children to work on the commercial farms controlled by the Brothers, without pay and with frequent beatings. To feed themselves, the children were reduced to begging for food on the street and foraging in the pig troughs on the farm. In addition to the forced labor, several of the children were abused and raped by the Brothers. Over 10,000 children immigrated from Britain to Australia between 1947 and 1967, the years during which this child trafficking scam operated. It's estimated that at least 300 of those children were victims of forced labor once they arrived in Australia. In 2001, the Australian government acknowledged the complaints of the "working boys," as the child victims of this scam eventually came to be called. They apologized for the abuses, and admitted that many of the children brought to Australia during this time were not orphans, but children lured or stolen from their families. And now that the survivors are all adults, some in their 60s, they are finally seeking justice for their stolen childhoods via a lawsuit. Many human trafficking scams rely on the idea of building trust to lure a victim away from protection, and using the front of a religious organization is a powerful and despicable way to do that. What poor family wouldn't trust a group of Catholic sisters offering to educate their child? Isn't that what nuns do? Perhaps it's because I was raised in the Catholic Church, but I find this story incites a rare and balanced blend of heartbreak and anger. How on earth could this have been allowed to continue for 20 years? I know the Catholic Church is no stranger to scandal -- especially as regards the sexual abuse of young boys -- but couple that with the forced labor, the beatings, the lies to impoverished families, and the blatant racketeering. It's an additional layer of abhorrence that goes a step beyond usual evil. Perhaps this lawsuit will help the survivors find justice, the Catholic Church and government of Australia accept responsibility, and the families who lost children experience closure. Perhaps it won't. But if nothing else, I hope it helps children today stay safe, as we all realize that even a wolf in nun's clothing is still a wolf. Read more... Publicado por Banished Babies en 23:58 0 comentarios Etiquetas: Christian Brotherss, Sisters of Mercy Children were abused in Australian orphanages for over 80 years martes 17 de agosto de 2010 Orphanages and juvenile detention centres in Queensland, Australia, have subjected children to serious physical, sexual and emotional abuse for more than 80 years. An inquiry into child abuse in 150 government institutions from 1911 to 1999 found many children were "demoralised and brutalised" by the system. The report was delivered to parliament by Queensland Youth and Community Care Minister Anna Bligh, whose department commissioned the report. "The report concludes that significant numbers of children in Queensland institutions suffered serious physical, sexual and emotional abuse," Ms Bligh told the Queensland state parliament. "In many other cases there was a failure to provide for the basic needs of children -- emotional warmth, food, clothing and education." Continuing abuse The catalogue of ill-treatment includes flogging, sexual assaults, and at one institution, allegations of murders. In some cases children were found to have been given food containing weevils and being forced to eat on cockroach infested tables. As recently as the 1980s, children who wet the bed at night were routinely made to sit with the wet sheets on their heads at breakfast the following day. Queensland now relies less on large institutional care facilities and more on fostering, but Ms Bligh says children could still be at risk because adequate monitoring is still not in place. But the report recommends the government of Queensland spend another A$100 million (US$65 million) to develop options other than juvenile detention centres to house children. Queensland state premier, Peter Beattie, issued a formal apology to children who had been abused while they were in care. "You would have to have a heart of stone not to be moved by this report and I give an immediate and heartfelt personal apology as premier to those children today," Mr Beattie said. Criminal investigations The inquiry found 14 allegations of possible criminal conduct which the police will investigate. Details of conditions in two homes were not published in order not to prejudice future criminal proceedings. Ms Bligh said the report, which she delivered to parliament on Tuesday, "shines a light into a dark and shameful episode of our history". In the report, one man who had been in care as a child described "many, terrible floggings," which often left the subject with blood running down their backs. In another part of the report, a 12-year-old boy is alleged to have been sexually assaulted by a priest on 14 occasions over two and a half years.
Edit Links2010-00-00 Search Commonwealth +Serum National Libray [External Link]

237 results - a wealth of historic information here



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Edit Links2010-00-00 National Laws Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children [External Link]

National Laws Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children Australia - Australie - Australia Canberra II. The Legislation of the Australian State of Queensland ‘Carnal knowledge of girls under sixteen (16)’, Section 215 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who has or attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the girl is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.



1hXqayif,47bcMs9yCPJI,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,GPyHnNMf,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sTgobvkFSc,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,ERxYcTdzlQv,



National Laws Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children Australia - Australie - Australia Canberra II. The Legislation of the Australian State of Queensland ‘Carnal knowledge of girls under sixteen (16)’, Section 215 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who has or attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the girl is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (3) If the girl is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for life or, in the case of an attempt to have unlawful carnal knowledge, to imprisonment for 14 years. (4) If the girl is not the lineal descendant of the offender but the offender is her guardian or, for the time being, has her under the offender's care, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for life or, in the case of an attempt to have unlawful carnal knowledge, to imprisonment for 14 years. (5) If the offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a girl of or above the age of twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section 'carnal knowledge' 'does not include sodomy.' ‘Unlawful Sodomy’, Section 208 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) sodomises a person under eighteen (18) years; or (b) permits a male person under eighteen (18) years to sodomise him or her; or (c) sodomises an intellectually impaired person; or (d) permits an intellectually impaired person to sodomise him or her; -commits a crime. Maximum penalty: 14 years imprisonment. (2) The offender is liable to imprisonment for life if the offence is committed in respect of: (a) a child under twelve (12) years; or (b) a child, or an intellectually impaired person, who is to the knowledge of the offender- (i) his or her lineal descendant; or (ii) under his or her guardianship or care. (3) For an offence defined in subsection (1) (a) or (b) alleged to have been committed in respect of a child who is twelve (12)years or more, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the person in respect of whom the offence was committed was eighteen (18) years or more. (4) It is a defence to a charge of an offence defined in subsection (1) (c) or (d) to prove- (a) that the accused person believed on reasonable grounds that the person was not an intellectually impaired person; or (b) that the act that was the offence did not, in the circumstances, constitute sexual exploitation of the intellectually impaired person.' ‘Attempted sodomy’, Section 209 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who attempts to commit a crime defined in section 208 is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 7 years. (2) The offender is liable to imprisonment for 14 years if the offence is committed in respect of (a) a child under twelve (12) years; or (b) a child, or an intellectually impaired person, who is to the knowledge of the offender: (i) his or her lineal descendant; or (ii) under his or her guardianship or care. (3) It is a defence to a charge of attempting to commit an offence defined in section 208(1) (a) or (b) in respect of a child who is twelve (12) years or more to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (4) It is a defence to a charge of attempting to commit an offence defined in section 208(1) (c) or (d) to prove (a) that the accused person believed on reasonable grounds that the person in respect of whom the offence was committed was not an intellectually impaired person; or (b) that the act that was the offence did not, in the circumstances, constitute sexual exploitation of the intellectually impaired person.' ‘Taking a child for immoral purposes’, Section 219 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who takes or entices away, or detains a child who is under the prescribed age and is not the spouse of that person for the purpose of any person, whether a particular person or not, doing an act in relation to the child (a "proscribed act") defined to constitute an offence in section 208, 210 or 215 is guilty of a crime. (2) If the child is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) If the child is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is liable to imprisonment (a) for life, where the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence in section 208 or 215; (b) for 14 years in any other case. (4) If the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence defined in section 208 and the child is of or above twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (5) If the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence defined in section 210 or 215 and the child is of or above twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, the child was of or above sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section (1) 'prescribed age' means (a) for an offence defined in section 208, eighteen (18) years; (b) for an offence defined in section 210 or 215, sixteen (16) years.' ‘Incest’, Section 222 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) has carnal knowledge with or of the person's offspring or other lineal descendant, or sibling, parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt, nephew or niece; and (b) knows that the other person bears that relationship to him or her, or some relationship of that type to him or her; -commits a crime. Maximum penalty-imprisonment for life. (2) Any person who attempts to commit the crime of incest is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) It is immaterial that the act or attempted act of carnal knowledge happened with the consent of either person. (4) It is a defence to a charge under this section to prove that the accused person was, at the time when the act or attempted act of carnal knowledge happened, acting under the coercion of the other person. (5) A reference in this section to an offspring or other lineal descendant, or a sibling or a parent includes a relationship of that type that is a half, adoptive or step relationship. (6) For subsection (5), a reference to a step relationship includes a relationship corresponding to a step relationship arising because of cohabitation in a de facto relationship or because of a foster relationship or a legal arrangement. (7) Also, for subsection (5), a reference to a step relationship does not include a step relationship that first arose after the relevant persons became adult. (8) This section does not apply to carnal knowledge between persons who are lawfully married or entitled to be lawfully married.' ‘Maintaining a sexual relationship with a child’, Section 229B of the Criminal Code '(1) Any adult who maintains an unlawful relationship of a sexual nature with a child under the prescribed age is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (2) A person shall not be convicted of the offence defined in subsection ( 1) unless it is shown that the accused person, as an adult, has, during the period in which it is alleged that he or she maintained the relationship in issue with the child, done an act defined to constitute an offence of a sexual nature in relation to the child, other than an offence defined in section 210 (1) (e) or (f), on 3 or more occasions and evidence of the doing of any such act shall be admissible and probative of the maintenance of the relationship notwithstanding that the evidence does not disclose the dates or the exact circumstances of those occasions. (3) If in the course of the relationship of a sexual nature the offender has committed an offence of a sexual nature for which the offender is liable to imprisonment for 14 years or more, the offender is liable in respect of maintaining the relationship to imprisonment for life. (4) If- (a) the offence of a sexual nature mentioned in subsection (2) is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above twelve (12) years; and (b) the offence is defined under section 208 or 209; -it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed throughout the relationship, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (5) If- (a) the offence of a sexual nature mentioned in subsection (2) is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above twelve (12) years; and (b) the offence is one other than one defined under section 208 or 209; -it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed throughout the relationship, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above sixteen (16) years. (6) A person may be charged in 1 indictment with an offence defined in this section and with any other offence of a sexual nature alleged to have been committed by him or her in the course of the relationship in issue in the first mentioned offence and he or she may be convicted of and punished for any or all of the offences so charged. (7) However, where the offender is sentenced to a term of imprisonment for the first mentioned offence and a term of imprisonment for the other offence an order shall not be made directing that 1 of those sentences take effect from the expiration of deprivation of liberty for the other. (8) A prosecution for an offence defined in this section shall not be commenced without the consent of a Crown Law Officer (9) In this section ‘prescribed age’ means (a) to the extent that the relationship involves an act defined to constitute an offence in section 208 or 209-18 years; or (b) to the extent that the relationship involves any other act defined to constitute an offence of a sexual nature-16 years.' IV. Child prostitution -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ‘Procuring young person etc. for carnal knowledge’, Section 217 of the Criminal Code '(1) A person who procures a person who is not an adult or is an intellectually impaired person to engage in carnal knowledge (either in Queensland or elsewhere) commits a crime. Maximum penalty-imprisonment for 14 years. (2) In this section "procure" means knowingly entice or recruit for the purposes of sexual exploitation.' ‘Indecent treatment of children under sixteen (16)’, Section 210 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) unlawfully and indecently deals with a child under the age of sixteen (16) years; (b) unlawfully procures a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to commit an indecent act; (c) unlawfully permits himself or herself to be indecently dealt with by a child under the age of sixteen (16) years; (d) wilfully and unlawfully exposes a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to an indecent act by the offender or any other person; (e) without legitimate reason, wilfully exposes a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to any indecent object or any indecent film, videotape, audiotape, picture, photograph or printed or written master; (f) without legitimate reason, takes any indecent photograph or records, by means of any device any indecent visual image of a child under the age of sixteen (16) years, -is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the child is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime,and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) If the child is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (4) If the child is, to the knowledge of the offender, his or her lineal descendant or if the offender is the guardian of the child or, for the time being, has the child under his or her care, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (5) If the offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above the age of twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above the age of sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section 'deals with' includes doing any act which, if clone without consent, would constitute an assault as defined in this Code.'
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National Laws Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children Australia - Australie - Australia Canberra II. The Legislation of the Australian State of Queensland ‘Carnal knowledge of girls under sixteen (16)’, Section 215 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who has or attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the girl is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years.



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National Laws Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children Australia - Australie - Australia Canberra II. The Legislation of the Australian State of Queensland ‘Carnal knowledge of girls under sixteen (16)’, Section 215 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who has or attempts to have unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the girl is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (3) If the girl is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for life or, in the case of an attempt to have unlawful carnal knowledge, to imprisonment for 14 years. (4) If the girl is not the lineal descendant of the offender but the offender is her guardian or, for the time being, has her under the offender's care, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for life or, in the case of an attempt to have unlawful carnal knowledge, to imprisonment for 14 years. (5) If the offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a girl of or above the age of twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the girl was of or above the age of sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section 'carnal knowledge' 'does not include sodomy.' ‘Unlawful Sodomy’, Section 208 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) sodomises a person under eighteen (18) years; or (b) permits a male person under eighteen (18) years to sodomise him or her; or (c) sodomises an intellectually impaired person; or (d) permits an intellectually impaired person to sodomise him or her; -commits a crime. Maximum penalty: 14 years imprisonment. (2) The offender is liable to imprisonment for life if the offence is committed in respect of: (a) a child under twelve (12) years; or (b) a child, or an intellectually impaired person, who is to the knowledge of the offender- (i) his or her lineal descendant; or (ii) under his or her guardianship or care. (3) For an offence defined in subsection (1) (a) or (b) alleged to have been committed in respect of a child who is twelve (12)years or more, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the person in respect of whom the offence was committed was eighteen (18) years or more. (4) It is a defence to a charge of an offence defined in subsection (1) (c) or (d) to prove- (a) that the accused person believed on reasonable grounds that the person was not an intellectually impaired person; or (b) that the act that was the offence did not, in the circumstances, constitute sexual exploitation of the intellectually impaired person.' ‘Attempted sodomy’, Section 209 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who attempts to commit a crime defined in section 208 is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 7 years. (2) The offender is liable to imprisonment for 14 years if the offence is committed in respect of (a) a child under twelve (12) years; or (b) a child, or an intellectually impaired person, who is to the knowledge of the offender: (i) his or her lineal descendant; or (ii) under his or her guardianship or care. (3) It is a defence to a charge of attempting to commit an offence defined in section 208(1) (a) or (b) in respect of a child who is twelve (12) years or more to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (4) It is a defence to a charge of attempting to commit an offence defined in section 208(1) (c) or (d) to prove (a) that the accused person believed on reasonable grounds that the person in respect of whom the offence was committed was not an intellectually impaired person; or (b) that the act that was the offence did not, in the circumstances, constitute sexual exploitation of the intellectually impaired person.' ‘Taking a child for immoral purposes’, Section 219 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who takes or entices away, or detains a child who is under the prescribed age and is not the spouse of that person for the purpose of any person, whether a particular person or not, doing an act in relation to the child (a "proscribed act") defined to constitute an offence in section 208, 210 or 215 is guilty of a crime. (2) If the child is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) If the child is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is liable to imprisonment (a) for life, where the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence in section 208 or 215; (b) for 14 years in any other case. (4) If the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence defined in section 208 and the child is of or above twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (5) If the proscribed act is one defined to constitute an offence defined in section 210 or 215 and the child is of or above twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, the child was of or above sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section (1) 'prescribed age' means (a) for an offence defined in section 208, eighteen (18) years; (b) for an offence defined in section 210 or 215, sixteen (16) years.' ‘Incest’, Section 222 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) has carnal knowledge with or of the person's offspring or other lineal descendant, or sibling, parent, grandparent, uncle, aunt, nephew or niece; and (b) knows that the other person bears that relationship to him or her, or some relationship of that type to him or her; -commits a crime. Maximum penalty-imprisonment for life. (2) Any person who attempts to commit the crime of incest is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) It is immaterial that the act or attempted act of carnal knowledge happened with the consent of either person. (4) It is a defence to a charge under this section to prove that the accused person was, at the time when the act or attempted act of carnal knowledge happened, acting under the coercion of the other person. (5) A reference in this section to an offspring or other lineal descendant, or a sibling or a parent includes a relationship of that type that is a half, adoptive or step relationship. (6) For subsection (5), a reference to a step relationship includes a relationship corresponding to a step relationship arising because of cohabitation in a de facto relationship or because of a foster relationship or a legal arrangement. (7) Also, for subsection (5), a reference to a step relationship does not include a step relationship that first arose after the relevant persons became adult. (8) This section does not apply to carnal knowledge between persons who are lawfully married or entitled to be lawfully married.' ‘Maintaining a sexual relationship with a child’, Section 229B of the Criminal Code '(1) Any adult who maintains an unlawful relationship of a sexual nature with a child under the prescribed age is guilty of a crime and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (2) A person shall not be convicted of the offence defined in subsection ( 1) unless it is shown that the accused person, as an adult, has, during the period in which it is alleged that he or she maintained the relationship in issue with the child, done an act defined to constitute an offence of a sexual nature in relation to the child, other than an offence defined in section 210 (1) (e) or (f), on 3 or more occasions and evidence of the doing of any such act shall be admissible and probative of the maintenance of the relationship notwithstanding that the evidence does not disclose the dates or the exact circumstances of those occasions. (3) If in the course of the relationship of a sexual nature the offender has committed an offence of a sexual nature for which the offender is liable to imprisonment for 14 years or more, the offender is liable in respect of maintaining the relationship to imprisonment for life. (4) If- (a) the offence of a sexual nature mentioned in subsection (2) is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above twelve (12) years; and (b) the offence is defined under section 208 or 209; -it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed throughout the relationship, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above eighteen (18) years. (5) If- (a) the offence of a sexual nature mentioned in subsection (2) is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above twelve (12) years; and (b) the offence is one other than one defined under section 208 or 209; -it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed throughout the relationship, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above sixteen (16) years. (6) A person may be charged in 1 indictment with an offence defined in this section and with any other offence of a sexual nature alleged to have been committed by him or her in the course of the relationship in issue in the first mentioned offence and he or she may be convicted of and punished for any or all of the offences so charged. (7) However, where the offender is sentenced to a term of imprisonment for the first mentioned offence and a term of imprisonment for the other offence an order shall not be made directing that 1 of those sentences take effect from the expiration of deprivation of liberty for the other. (8) A prosecution for an offence defined in this section shall not be commenced without the consent of a Crown Law Officer (9) In this section ‘prescribed age’ means (a) to the extent that the relationship involves an act defined to constitute an offence in section 208 or 209-18 years; or (b) to the extent that the relationship involves any other act defined to constitute an offence of a sexual nature-16 years.' IV. Child prostitution -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ‘Procuring young person etc. for carnal knowledge’, Section 217 of the Criminal Code '(1) A person who procures a person who is not an adult or is an intellectually impaired person to engage in carnal knowledge (either in Queensland or elsewhere) commits a crime. Maximum penalty-imprisonment for 14 years. (2) In this section "procure" means knowingly entice or recruit for the purposes of sexual exploitation.' ‘Indecent treatment of children under sixteen (16)’, Section 210 of the Criminal Code '(1) Any person who- (a) unlawfully and indecently deals with a child under the age of sixteen (16) years; (b) unlawfully procures a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to commit an indecent act; (c) unlawfully permits himself or herself to be indecently dealt with by a child under the age of sixteen (16) years; (d) wilfully and unlawfully exposes a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to an indecent act by the offender or any other person; (e) without legitimate reason, wilfully exposes a child under the age of sixteen (16) years to any indecent object or any indecent film, videotape, audiotape, picture, photograph or printed or written master; (f) without legitimate reason, takes any indecent photograph or records, by means of any device any indecent visual image of a child under the age of sixteen (16) years, -is guilty of an indictable offence. (2) If the child is of or above the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime,and is liable to imprisonment for 10 years. (3) If the child is under the age of twelve (12) years, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (4) If the child is, to the knowledge of the offender, his or her lineal descendant or if the offender is the guardian of the child or, for the time being, has the child under his or her care, the offender is guilty of a crime, and is liable to imprisonment for 14 years. (5) If the offence is alleged to have been committed in respect of a child of or above the age of twelve (12) years, it is a defence to prove that the accused person believed, on reasonable grounds, that the child was of or above the age of sixteen (16) years. (6) In this section 'deals with' includes doing any act which, if clone without consent, would constitute an assault as defined in this Code.'
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1hXqayif,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bmkcoOxFX,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hfeohBKw,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,IMtuYfXNCPEdz,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JhJqqiJAW,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,OJawjIsMiZa,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,rLeFlLTqKXADDPSQ,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UFmcjuSUok,ujjaAACqS,uppamjKV,Vaccination,vMBsKPaN,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wnQoXKOSLirBnj,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,yRunWkcIhO,YTuHqORwdOtFw,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZhekwOLTLFxRAxnwME,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,AIhwIjnDWsC,



Edit Links2009-11-19 Melbourne Uni says sorry for trials on orphans [External Link]

Melbourne Uni says sorry for trials on orphans



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Melbourne Uni says sorry for trials on orphans Bridie Smith November 18, 2009 Be the first to comment MELBOURNE University has apologised to the Forgotten Australians - in particular the children in orphanages its researchers used as human guinea-pigs in medical research trials. The apology, which comes with an offer of counselling, puts on the public record the university's involvement in the practice of using orphans to test experimental medical research. A 2004 Senate inquiry into the practice identifies Melbourne organisations such as the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research as using children from institutions, including babies, for medical trials - but not Melbourne University. Advertisement: Story continues below But an email sent to staff and students yesterday by vice-chancellor Glyn Davis acknowledged that Melbourne University researchers had used orphans ''as subjects'' in vaccination trials for whooping cough, influenza and polio. The worldwide quest to develop vaccines for such childhood diseases was conducted with urgency after World War II, when outbreaks killed or disabled thousands of children. The Senate inquiry states children and babies in institutions were used for medical experiments and research in Victoria until as recently as the 1970s. The results of a number of experimental trials were reported in the Medical Journal of Australia and the Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science. In the email, Professor Davis backed the bipartisan apology in Federal Parliament this week, saying the ''recognition of injustice is long overdue''. ''It is also appropriate the university … take this occasion to express its deep regret for the part played by researchers linked to its community in vaccination research trials conducted after World War II using children in orphanages as 'subjects','' he wrote. ''The University of Melbourne Council and the university community join with other Australians in saying a heartfelt 'sorry' to those children whose personal rights were infringed by these experiments, and to all the Forgotten Australians for the suffering their institutionalisation has caused.'' A university spokeswoman said Professor Davis was moved to write and distribute an official apology after his office was contacted by ''a member of the university community'' who is a Forgotten Australian. She said assistance and counselling had been offered to any members of the university's 50,000-strong community affected by the practice. In 1997 The Age printed a series of articles on children in orphanages and babies' homes in Victoria being used for medical experiments and research that included trials of vaccines that did not work or failed to pass safety tests in animals. The Senate inquiry speculated that children in orphanages were used as the ''subjects'' for a range of reasons, including that they were often the most susceptible to disease, as an epidemic could sweep through an orphanage.
Edit Links2009-09-22 Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Revisited

International Humanist and Ethical Union CRITICISM OF THE HOLY SEE OVER CHILD ABUSE AT THE UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL (UNHRC)

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Edit Links2009-06-06 Call for Apology to 500,000 Abused Children [External Link]

Call for Apology to 500,000 Abused Children



General,Australia,



Call for Apology to 500,000 Abused Children By BARBARA LANE Published: July 6, 2009 Calls for a federal government apology to 500,000 abused children known as the “Forgotten Australians” and “Lost Innocents” ring out across Australia. 1 On Thursday, June 25, 2009, a Senate Community Affairs Reference Committee Report was tabled in Parliament house, reviewing recommendations made years ago in regard to these groups. The “Forgotten Australians” are those who were under the care of the State during the last century, and the “Lost Innocents” were child migrants. These people report histories of horrific abuse and neglect in institutions and out-of-home placements. The Senate Review report focuses on the need for an apology from the Federal Government, redress and a whole-of-government approach to the delivery of services and programs to care-leavers. Approximately 150 care leavers, many being members of CLAN (Care Leavers Australia Network) attended the tabling of the Report and hundreds of thousands of Australians now await the government’s response. “The Commonwealth Government paid child endowment to the institutions where the abuse occurred”, said one survivor who preferred not to be named, “but the Howard government just seemed to want to shift all the responsibility onto the States. I’m hoping for better from the Rudd government.” Many expect an apology similar to that given to members of the Stolen Generation. Jenny Macklin, Minister for Family and Community Services, described the abuse and neglect suffered by survivors of institutional care as a tragedy and said that she would consider the recommendation for an apology. Also... * Playground Style * Asia's Feral Dog Problem. * 1956: A New Start in Papua New Guinea * Aussie, Aussie, Aussie... Some States have already implemented redress schemes which provide ex gratia payments to those who suffered abuse in institutions. For those that haven’t, the Committee “recommends that the Commonwealth Government pursue all available policy and political options to ensure that South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria establish redress schemes for people who suffered neglect and/or abuse in institutional settings or out-of-home care in the last century; and that the remaining States make provision to ensure continued receipt of redress claims.” Queensland’s Redress Scheme will begin paying Stage 2 payments of “up to $33,000” to eligible claimants after sending letters of offer in August, 2009. One of the problems with delivery of services is in ascertaining exactly who the forgotten Australians are. It has been previously suggested that a “Gold Card” system would be appropriate. Recommendation 9 is that “in accordance with recommendation 33 of the Forgotten Australians report, the Commonwealth and States commit, through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG), to implementing a whole-of-government approach to the provision of programs and services for care leavers across policy areas such as health, housing and welfare and community services and other relevant policy areas”. On a local level, Janelle Saffin MP, Federal Member for Page says she has discussed the need for an apology with Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and Family and Community Services Minister, Jenny Macklin. Flickspin writing community She said she intends in the near future to hold a morning tea for Forgotten Australians in the Northern Rivers area so that they can get to know one another and discuss common requirements and directions.
Edit Links2009-06-00 Catholic Childrens Home Used Orphans in Experiment [External Link]

Catholic Childrens Home Used Orphans in Experiment



General,Australia,



Catholic Childrens Home Used Orphans in Experiment Catholic Childrens Home Used Orphans in Experiments in U.S. 1/2, NYC CPS Catholic Childrens Home Used Orphans in Experiments in U.S. 2/2, NYC CPS BBC Documentary 'Guinea Pig Kids'. The House That AIDS Built. In New York's Washington Heights is a 4-story brick building called Incarnation Children's Center (ICC). This former convent houses a revolving stable of children who've been removed from their own homes by the Agency for Child Services. These children were poor. Many of their mothers had a history of drug abuse and have died. Once taken into ICC, the children become subjects of drug trials sponsored by NIAID (National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Disease, a division of the NIH), NICHD (the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) in conjunction with some of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies - GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Genentech, Chiron/Biocine, others. The drugs given to the children were toxic - known to cause genetic mutation, organ failure, bone marrow death, bodily deformations, brain damage and fatal skin disorders. If the children refused the drugs, they were held down and force fed drugs. If the children continued to resist, they were taken to Columbia Presbyterian hospital where a surgeon put a plastic tube through their abdominal wall into their stomachs. The drugs were injected directly into their intestines. This piece was investigated and written through winter of 2003 + published in January 2004. The story broke wide in early 2004 w coverage in the New York Post + the New York Press. It served as the basis of investigation for the BBC film "Guinea Pig Kids" and prompted further investigation by the Associated Press. Collection Photos Articles References at http://www.altheal.org/toxicity/house... ORPHANS ON TRIAL, New York Press, July 2004 http://www.altheal.org/toxicity/orpha... Guinea Pig Kids, Jamie Doran, BBC Reporter/producer, 2004. HIV positive children and their loved ones have few rights if they choose to battle with social work authorities in New York City. When I first heard the story of the "guinea pig kids", I instinctively refused to believe that it could be happening in any civilised country, particularly the United States, where the propensity for legal action normally ensures a high level of protection. But that, as I was to discover, was central to the choice of location and subjects, because to be free in New York City, you need money. Over 23,000 of the city's children are either in foster care or independent homes run mostly by religious organisations on behalf of the local authorities. Some of these kids were infected with the HIV virus. For over a decade, this became the target group for experimentation involving cocktails of toxic drugs. Central to this story is the city's child welfare department, the Administration for Children's Services (ACS). The ACS, as it is known, was granted far-reaching powers in the 1990s by then-Republican Mayor Rudi Giuliani, after a particularly horrific child killing. Within the shortest of periods, literally thousands of children were being rounded up and placed in foster care. "They're essentially out of control," said family lawyer David Lansner. "I've had many ACS case workers tell me: 'We're ACS, we can do whatever we want' and they usually get away with it." Having taken children into care, the ACS was now, effectively, their parent and could do just about anything it wished with them. We asked Dr David Rasnick, visiting scholar at the University of Berkeley, internationally renowned for his work on numerous diseases, including cancer, for his opinion on some of the experiments. He said: "We're talking about serious, serious side-effects. These children are going to be absolutely miserable. They're going to have cramps, diarrhoea and their joints are going to swell up. They're going to roll around the ground and you can't touch them." He went on to describe some of the drugs - supplied by major drug manufacturers including Glaxo SmithKline - as "lethal". The BBC film "Guinea Pig Kids" follows Jacklyn's story and that of other parents or guardians who fear for the lives of their loved ones, talks to a child who spent years on drugs programmes which made them and their friends ill, and discovers that Incarnation is not an isolated case. The experiments continue to be carried out on the poor children of New York City. Guinea Pig Kids was broadcast on Tuesday, 30 November 2004 at 1930 GMT on BBC Two (UK). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes... Vatican crimes. 23,000 children in New York endure human experimentations at the hands of priests and nuns. This case largely resembles the innocent children in Ireland and Canada submitted into catholic-run institutions where they endured human experimentations at the hands of priests and nuns. http://www.vaticancrimes.us/2010/10/i... Allaince for Human Research Protection (AHRP) http://www.ahrp.org/infomail/04/02/29...
Edit Links2009-06-00 Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Revisited

Report on the progress with the implementation of the recommendations of the Lost Innocents and Forgotten Australians Reports

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Edit Links2009-04-26 What Does the Bible Say on Pedophilia? [External Link]

Given that pedophilia is reported in the media so often, I got to thinking of where the Bible speaks of pedophiles. Surely, God being omniscient knew before creating the world that some men and women would, sooner than later, end up sexualizing children, own and others’. But, I couldn’t think of any Bible passage which warned against using children for sexual gratification. I could only think that, according to the gospels, God himself violated Mary’s body, when supposedly a teenager of perhaps 14, by implanting “holy” sperm in her. It was a violation because she wasn’t asked for permission.



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Edit Links2009-00-00 Contaminated Pulse Polio vaccines!! [External Link]

Contaminated Pulse Polio vaccines!!



Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,Canada,Criminal Activity,Death,jHENLJffEC,KQkkUxjfknGg,okOjdzMU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,Queensland,Suspicious Activity,Vaccination,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xmqyFrlGum,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,UctCEBEwqRI,

Contaminated Pulse Polio vaccines!! Dr. Robert Roach. Australia Email: oracoms@hotmail.com

Contaminated Pulse Polio vaccines!! Dr. Robert Roach. Australia Email: oracoms@hotmail.com Almost 3 million doses of polio vaccine produced between 1956 and 1962 were contaminated by a monkey virus linked to a range of cancers, according to a newspaper report. The Sydney Morning Herald reports an investigation by The Age newspaper, which found that a federal government agency knowingly released the infected vaccine. At least four batches of vaccine released by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, totaling almost 3 million doses, were contaminated by the virus known as Simian Virus 40 or SV40. The paper said two of the batches were released after testing positive to contamination, while the other two were released before tests could be performed. An unknown number of earlier batches were almost certainly contaminated by the virus, it said. Internal research conducted by the laboratories in 1962, but never made public, showed that the monkey virus was a potential cause of cancer in humans, it was reported. The virus came from pulped infected monkey kidneys used to produce cell cultures to grow the polio virus. Scientists have linked it to a range of rare human lung, brain and blood cancers, including mesothelioma. The paper said the laboratories produced more than 18 million doses of the Salk polio vaccine, enough to vaccinate 6 million Australians, between 1956 and 1962. Ninety per cent of Australian children aged between 5 and 14 were injected with the Salk vaccine by 1965, it said. Commonwealth Serum Laboratories was privatised in 1994. Company spokeswoman Rachel David told the newspaper the company\'s practices had changed dramatically and the public could be very confident about the quality and safety of vaccines currently being produced. She said the decision to release the contaminated vaccine would have been made after balancing the real risk of a polio epidemic against \"a small theoretical risk\" posed by the monkey virus. © 2004 AAP Guinea pigs in tainted vaccine trials By Gary Hughes October 25, 2004 War on disease ... a pupil at Melbourne\'s Scotch College receives a Salk vaccine injection in 1956, as did thousands of other children around Australia. A federal agency used babies in orphanages and children\'s homes to test a new quadruple antigen vaccination that included polio vaccine possibly contaminated with a monkey virus since linked to cancer. Commonwealth Serum Laboratory records show the trials were carried out on babies as young as three months in five institutions between December 1959 and early 1961. Quadruple antigen, containing Salk polio vaccine, was not publicly released until November 1960. An investigation by the Melbourne Age, reported in the Herald at the weekend, revealed that millions of doses of Salk vaccine produced by the then government-owned CSL between 1956 and 1962 were contaminated with a monkey virus called SV40. Researchers have found traces of the virus in a range of human cancer cells, including mesothelioma lung disease. It is not clear from the CSL records whether polio vaccine used to produce quadruple antigen used in the tests came from contaminated batches. The federal Health Minister, Tony Abbott, has ordered a departmental inquiry into CSL\'s decision to release contaminated vaccines and any risks associated with it. Health authorities stressed there was no proven link between SV40 and cancer and have also reassured the public that polio vaccines still routinely given to all babies were safe and free from the virus and other known contaminants. However, a national support group for victims of contaminated medical products yesterday called for a royal commission into CSL. "The track record of CSL demonstrates the need for a royal commission into all their operations,said Charles MacKenzie, president of the Independent Blood Council. CSL research records in the National Archives show that 56 babies under the age of 12 months were used in the Victorian vaccine trials. One baby is recorded as having died of meningitis in August 1960, less than three months after finishing a course of three quadruple antigen injections. The records list the names of the institutions, the names and ages of the babies, the doses of quadruple antigen given and the results of blood tests conducted before and after the vaccinations to measure polio antibodies. There is no indication of who gave formal consent for the babies to be used in the trials, which were carried out by CSL's virus research department. Further development and use of the quadruple antigen, which also provided vaccination against whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus, appeared to have been abandoned during 1962-63. Salk vaccine was replaced with Sabin oral polio vaccine by 1965. The Age revealed in 1997 that Victorian babies homes and orphanages had been used by several medical and research bodies, including CSL, for trials of a range of experimental vaccines. The reports led to inquiries by the state and federal health departments, which concluded that there was no evidence of any other similar medical trials. Neither report referred to the quadruple antigen trials. The state government report, a copy of which has been obtained under freedom of information by Melbourne researcher Brenda Coughlan, found no record of the Department of Human Services providing formal consent for state wards to be used in trials. The Age\'s revelations were examined by the Senate's inquiry into mistreatment of state wards, which said in its report in August that it was unclear who was legally responsible for allowing the children to be used. It concluded that any long-term health effects on children used in the experiments were unknown. Dr Rachel David, director of public affairs at CSL, which was privatised in 1994, said it would have been a logical decision to trial the new vaccinations in such institutions at that time, when community attitudes were different, because lots of kids died of communicable and vaccine preventable disease". "It's easy to pass judgment in retrospect, but I\'d suggest we can\'t do that. In that day and age people didn't't give consent for any medical procedures really, not in the way we understand informed consent now, where they have to sign a form and it is a very formal procedure."
Edit Links2008-10-17 O-1325 Dr Jensen George Brandis Child abuse in Queensland Page: 1

Dr Jensen, George Brandis, Child abuse in Queensland Heiner Affair - rape of children in John Oxley centre

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Edit Links2008-10-17 O-1325 Dr Jensen George Brandis Child abuse in Queensland Page: 2

Dr Jensen, George Brandis, Child abuse in Queensland

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Edit Links2008-10-17 O-1325 Dr Jensen George Brandis Child abuse in Queensland Page: 3

Dr Jensen, George Brandis, Child abuse in Queensland

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Edit Links2008-03-31 Children in State Care Commission of inquiry - The Mulligan Inquiry Report

Sexual abuse of children in state care, mulligan qc



,Australia,



Edit Links2008-02-20 Dr. confesses Cancer & other Viruses is found in Vaccines [External Link]

Merck Vaccine Chief Brings HIV/AIDS to America AND THEY LAUGH ABOUT IT!! Wake Up and Americans Unite against the lies that is told to destroy our children. Here is an interview that is very rare and will shock you. Hear how the vaccinations were started what they have in it all from the mouth of Dr. Maurice Hillerman admitting to massive field trials, and hiding the truth from the press book mark this and show it to all your friends. Do not let them brainwash you into making your self sick seek out the truth about the natural healing powers of good OREGANO OIL that can kill viruses and the common cold. visit www.armchairsurvivalist.com Merck Vaccine Chief Brings HIV/AIDS to America This stunning censored interview conducted by medical historian Edward Shorter for WGBH public television (Boston) and Blackwell Science was cut from The Health Century due to its huge liability--the admission that Merck drug company vaccines have traditionally been injecting cancer viruses (SV40 and others) in people worldwide. This segment of In Lies We Trust: The CIA, Hollywood & Bioterrorism, produced and freely contributed by consumer protector and public health expert, Dr. Leonard Horowitz, features the world's leading vaccine expert, Dr. Maurice Hilleman, who explains why Merck's vaccines have spread AIDS, leukemia, and other horrific plagues worldwide. Please forward this clip (link) to everyone you know who thinks vaccines are "safe and effective."



Vaccination,,kPQ6C9dM,



Edit Links2008-00-00 Submissions to Inquiry - Children placed in mental homes and other inappropriate Accommodation

Children placed in mental homes and other inappropriate accommodation 1997 The Age ran an article regarding drug administrators in orphanages - human growth hormone Experimentation, Forde Inquiry made mention of these things also



,Australia,

Committee Report - Federal Govt on Forgotten Australians ??? Innocents - taken from the findings Estimated Date Wages

Edit Links2007-03-15 Vatican, CIA And North American Government Officials Complicit In The Torture And Murder of More Than 100,000 Children Known [External Link]

Vatican, CIA And North American Government Officials Complicit In The Torture And Murder of More Than 100,000 Children Known As Duplessis Orphans



Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,Canada,Criminal Activity,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,KQkkUxjfknGg,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,Suspicious Activity,United Kingdom,VOLPMnWXGnTr,zblVDreIx,,



Vatican, CIA And North American Government Officials Complicit In The Torture And Murder of More Than 100,000 Children Known As Duplessis Orphans Called the crime of the century and Canadian holocaust by Rod Vienneau, whose wife was a child victim who escaped, he added that Vatican and CIA are still covering up the mass murder of children. By Greg Szymanski 15 Mar. 2007 Rod Vienneau and journalist Christine Hahn are just a couple of the thousands of people speaking out against the horrors that took place from the 1930’s through the 1980’s to a group of innocent children called the Duplessis Orphans. The name of the orphans originated from the former premier of Quebec, Maurice Duplessis, who according to Vienneau, was instrumental in protecting the culprits within Canadian mental institutions and Catholic orphanages, torturing and killing thousands of young children. The despicable program, said Vienneau, was also part of a CIA mind experimentation program, carried out under the cover of darkness but with full knowledge and complicity from the Vatican, who knowingly provided children from Catholic run orphanages. “I have written hundreds of letters to every imaginable higher-official in the Vatican, in the Canadian government and in the U.S.,” said Vienneau, whose wife was one of the Duplessis Orphans who manages to escape at a young age. “This is equivalent to the Canadian holocaust, but everyone in the Vatican, in the North American governments and in the media is covering it up.” Vienneau has been an activist for his wife’s cause as well as an estimated 3,000 Duplessis Orphan survivors, who are now reaching middle or old age. And Wednesday on Greg Szymanski’s radio show, The Investigative Journal, Vienneau talked plainly, in starkly graphic and horrific terms, telling the sad story of how thousands of children have been murdered and tortured as Vatican and government officials turned a blind eye. “One victim who is now speaking out talked about how his job in the mental institution was to carry out the bodies of the dead children, throwing them like animals in a mass grave called the ‘Pig Sty’,” said Vienneau, adding the name of the mass grave acquired its name because it was right next to a pig farm. “We estimate thousands of children were buried there on an 800 plot of ground in Montreal where one of the mental institutions and orphanages was located. “When the land was sold by the Catholic Church for other purposes, including a parking lot and an expanded city highway system, workers accidentally dug up human bones. This find was then covered up by the government who now owned the property, saying the n=bones were those of animals. But the workers told the true story because it is hard to mistake finger, arm and leg bones which were clearly human.” Vienneau for 15 long years has been trying to get justice for the horrendous crimes committed against his wife. It’s been a long, hard battle – a fight that looks like David v. Goliath since the U.S. and Canadian governments are battling him tooth and nail to keep his case quiet. And the reason for the government barricade at revealing the truth is Vienneau’s case opens a “can of worms,” exposing the government and Vatican sanctioned torture and abuse of more than 100,000 children involved in illegal psychiatric government-sanctioned experimentation programs. Vienneau’s wife, Clarina, was one of thousands of children experimented on during the 1950’s and 60’s in what has become known as the Duplessis Orphan case. She now is seeking justice for crimes including illegal mind-altering drug experimentation, physical beatings, torture with whips and chains while being collared like a dog, ice cold baths, sleep deprivation and other crimes that shock the conscience. Clarina’s case has resurfaced by the hard work of independent freelance journalist, Christine Hahn, who has spent two years of her life working with Vienneau and other victims like him, trying to document and bring to justice high level officials and doctors responsible for the horrendous child abuse involving thousands of child. “After all these years of trying to get justice, I know for a fact the Vatican is involved and they have much power,” said Vienneau. “When I sent a letter to the Pope John Paul II, I believe it was intercepted by Ratzinger, who is now Pope Benedict XVI. Nothing has ever been done and if the Vatican is a good and holy place why haven’t they denounced the actions of the culprits involved. “Our investigations have also found that more than 200,000 children, mostly from broken homes without proper family attention, have been sold for money on the black market and shipped out, some in cardboard boxers, on ocean going vessels headed for foreign ports.” Vienneau added this about his wife’s personal tragedy on a previous Investigative Journal radio show: “We have been married for more than 40 years, but Clarina kept secret she was one of the Duplessis Orphans until 1992,” said Vienneau. “She came from a poor family ad was turned over to a Catholic orphanage when she was 9 years old. “Since we began researching her case, we found overnight her medical files were changed and she was declared mentally ill for no reason. At the age of 11, she was then transferred to a psychiatric clinic where she underwent torture and abuse until she was 17 when she finally escaped. Her sister also was one of the Duplessis Orphans, undergoing the same torture and abuse. “But my wife and sister may have been one of the lucky one’s. Over the years, even though the case has been sealed tight and we haven’t been able to find an attorney willing to stand up against the government, information has surfaced that thousands of other children were killed during the illegal experimentation programs. “In fact, there is a place near one of the psychiatric institutes, next to a pig pen, were investigators claim more than 2,000 children have been buried in a mass grave. There is a move now to try and exhume the bodies but no court in the land wants to touch this case.” Vienneau’s fight for justice is a stark example of how officials in Canada, the U.S. and the Vatican have joined together with large drug companies to keep the truth from the public. For his efforts to vindicate his wife’s name as well as prevent further child experimentation, Vienneau has had his phone wiretapped, as well as being harassed and followed by Canadian authorities. The reason for the crackdown on Vienneau is that Hahn’s investigation into the horrendous crimes committed against Clarina and others can be traced to illegal CIA-funded mind control and drug experimentation programs performed by unscrupulous doctors, some with former Nazi Party affiliations, essentially using the children as guinea pigs. Hahn said since the ties go to high-level doctors and government officials in both countries, there has been a concerted effort to suppress her story as well as people like Vennout who are trying to et at the truth. Although meticulously researched and documented, Hahn’s investigative piece was rejected by all mainstream publications, as she had to settle for publication in an alternative outlet called Freedom Magazine. Recently, Vienneau outlined what his main motives are in seeking justice for his wife ad the many other children abused by the illegal experimentation programs. “Criminal acts: Horrific criminal acts were done to thousands of innocent children here on Canadian soil ranging from murders, tortures; disappearance of children; lobotomy's and experimental drugs and falsely labeling thousands of innocent young children from 1935 to 1975 and nobody has yet been held accountable for these free criminal acts done to the Duplessis orphans. “Thousands of orphans were falsely labeled mentally ill, and today, this label still hangs heavy on the orphans shoulder's, This label has not yet been erased, this alone is a criminal act. “The Quebec government, the College of Physcians of Quebec; the Roman Catholic church of Quebec; the Quebec Public Trustee;(Guardianship) and the federal government of Canada have not yet acknowledged the harm done to thousands of young children here in Quebec. “Constitutional Rights : The Quebec government took away the Duplessis orphans rights to defend themselves in a court of law since 1995, all though four members of parliament stated that the orphans could take a lawyer at any time for their case, but it has been 11 years now that many orphans have been trying to get a lawyer for their case but to no avail. Lawyer Daniel Lighter, told me flatly that the Duplessis orphans case is locked shut tight since over fifteen years. The Duplessis orphans have no Constitutional "Rights, it all boils down to a huge cover up. “The Duplessis orphans are entitled to a real compensation from all party's mentioned above for lives ruined and still having to live day to day with the after-effects of their horrific journey into a psychiatric hospital having been falsely labeled.” The following stories are reprinted from the arctic Beacon archives, further illustrating the horrific story behind the Duplessis Orphans: Mass Graves Of Children Found Near Montreal; Another Duplessis Orphan Tells Of Being Tortured As A Child In CIA Experimentaion Programs Using Nazi Doctors Pierre Sampson, now 60, is calling for justice an an open investigation to stop the murder of innocent children in government sponsored child experimentation programs. More than 50,000 children said to be illegally experimented but crooked officials on both sides of the border blocking investigation. 13 Apr 2006 By Greg Szymanski Another Duplessis Orphan has come forward with horror stories, including electro shock therapy, straight jacket sessions and mind altering drugs injections after being subjected to illegal government experimentation programs as a young child. Pierre Sampson, 60, of Vancouver, Canada endured the torturous treatment for six long years until at the age of 14 when he finally escaped. But thousands of other Duplessis Orphans weren’t as lucky, as investigators recently uncovered a mass grave outside of Montreal where the bones of hundreds of children are buried in a mass grave. Called the “pigsty” since the grave site is located next to a hog farm, Rod Vienneau, whose wife was also a child victim, said a push is now underway to exhume the bodies with strong resistance from governments on both side of the border, both denying any involvement in the face of compelling evidence to the contrary. “I have been researching this atrocity for more than 10 years since my wife went public about being abused as one of the orphans,” said Rod Vienneau this week on Greg Szymanski’s radio show, The Investigative Journal, regarding the Duplessis Orphans, who may number more than 50,000 and named after former Prime Minister Maurice Duplessis, a key figure in the child experimentation cover-up. “We have documentation proving the link among with the CIA, the United States government and the Canadian government, all of them willing accomplices to the illegal experimentation of children. “Thousands of children have died, thousands of others have endured great suffering and there remains about 3,000 surviving victims we know about who are still seeking justice. What’s even more astonishing is that the illegal experimentation is still taking place while we speak.” Sampson, who went public for the first time in the United States on The Investigative Journal, is one of tens of thousands of children who were reduced to experimental guinea pigs by unscrupulous doctors, some known Nazi war criminals in a CIA program starting in the 1950’s Recently, a Canadian high court in 2004 awarded damages to adult mind control victims in a related case, pinning the CIA with responsibility as well as their unscrupulous doctors, including Dr. Ewin Cameron. For a further look at Dr. Cameron’s nefarious activities, a book called The Most Dangerous Game traces the history of top-secret CIA mind control operation MK-ULTRA: from the covert importation of NAZI scientists at the end of WWII, to the illegal brainwashing experiments conducted on the patients of psychiatric researcher, Dr Cameron The same type of testing Dr Cameron and others performed on adults is now being traced to innocent children, as advocates for the Duplessis Orphans contend their evil knows no age limits. Regarding Sampson’s personal story, he said at the age of six he was transferred from a Catholic orphanage to a mental institution even though he was both mentally and physically sound as church and civil authorities overnight changed his paperwork, indicating he was mentally ill. “After researching what happened,” said Sampson, who also appeared this week on The Investigative Journal. “The Church made a deal with the government to turn over perfectly healthy children in return for money, giving the doctors the ability to experiment at will since we were all considered insane. “To this day my records haven’t been changed. Although I have never been mentally ill, my records still haven’t been changed.” The link Sampson makes between the infiltrated Catholic Church and corrupted civil authorities is disturbing, indicating a consolidation of corruption not only in government but extending all the way to Rome and beyond. According to Vienneau and Sampson, this inhumane treatment was accomplished with the full authority, cooperation and funding of the American and Canadian governments together with corrupted elements of the Catholic Church, one of the government’s main suppliers of children used like experimental guinea pigs. “I hope one day we can get justice and remove this evil element of people from the continent,” said Vienneau. “How can we live in a society and trust a government who is killing our own children? These people will never admit to what they done and the only thing we can do is gather enough support among good people to have these corrupted leaders removed.” Vienneau also outlined what his main motives are in seeking justice for his wife, Sampson and the many other children abused by the illegal experimentation programs. “Criminal acts: Horrific criminal acts were done to thousands of innocent children here on Canadian soil ranging from murders, tortures; disappearance of children; lobotomy's and experimental drugs and falsely labeling thousands of innocent young children from 1935 to 1975 and nobody has yet been held accountable for these free criminal acts done to the Duplessis orphans. “Thousands of orphans were falsely labeled mentally ill, and today, this label still hangs heavy on the orphans shoulders, This label has not yet been erased, this alone is a criminal act. “The Quebec government, the College of Physicians of Quebec; the Roman Catholic church of Quebec; the Quebec Public Trustee;(Guardianship) and the federal government of Canada and America have not yet acknowledged the harm done to thousands of young children here in Quebec. “Constitutional Rights : The Quebec government took away the Duplessis orphans rights to defend themselves in a court of law since 1995, all though four members of parliament stated that the orphans could take a lawyer at any time for their case, but it has been 11 years now that many orphans have been trying to get a lawyer for their case but to no avail. “Lawyer Daniel Lighter, told me flatly that the Duplessis orphans case is locked shut tight since over fifteen years. The Duplessis orphans have no Constitutional rights, it all boils down to a huge cover up.” Editor’s Note: It’s beyond the realm of human comprehension how newspaper owners in the mainstream lack the decency to mount an investigation for the memory of all the dead children and the many others who have suffered at the hands of corrupted politicians and church leaders. By ignoring this story for more than five decades, major newspaper owners in the United States should be branded as co-conspirators along with the corrupted church leaders and politicians, who all march to the altar in lockstep every Sunday with the blood of the Duplessis Orphans dripping from their dirty hands. More Than 100,000 Children Used In CIA-Connected Experimentation Programs; Investigative Journalist Has Story Suppressed And Experiences Threats Before Its Eventual Release In Alternative PublicationC hristine Hahn won't back down from threats and suppression, as she vows to get out the truth about the Duplessis Orphans. 26 Feb 2006 By Greg Szymanski Christine Hahn is one of those investigative journalists who doesn’t take no for an answer. She looks below the surface for a story, won’t tolerate being lied to and considers the mainstream media a “joke.” Hahn considers “compromising the truth” a mortal sin and isn’t afraid to tackle tough issues and controversial subjects, including how CIA-funded programs illegally experimented on more than 50,000 children since the 1950’s. “Stories have surfaced about illegal government experimentation on adults through programs like MKULTRA, but I have meticulously documented the abuse going on with innocent children,” said Hahn, a Canadian now residing in the U.S., who also has been threatened numerous times during her two years of researching the story. Further, Hahn’s well-documented story pinning government involvement and influential doctors having Nazi ties, finally appeared in an alternative publication called Freedom Magazine after being suppressed by numerous mainstream outlets in the U.S. and Canada. “Nobody wanted to touch this story because of the high-level names,” said Hahn who recently appeared on Greg Szymanski’s radio show, The Investigative Journal. “I also was working for a W-FIVE, a well-known Canadian film documentary outlet when I had my grant pulled as well as the project. “I found out the head of the Investigative Journalist Grant Program also had CIA connections. The cover-up and media sell-out is keeping vital information from the public and is a big part of the problem facing the public.” Although Hahn’s story was suppressed in both Canada and the U.S. she didn’t give up, finally finding Freedom Magazine in Los Angeles as an outlet. Explaining some of her frustrations behind the Duplessis Orphan story, she said: “Like I said I once worked for W-FIVE, a well known Canadian current affairs program. Even though two of the five documentaries I helped produce were among the highest rated shows of the season, my contract was not renewed. I suspect it is because of other stories I was exposing--a eugenics program involvingthe Duplessis Orphans. “I could not get any mainstream media publication to run my stories and so Freedom Magazine ran the pieces. Through doing the story, I also have experienced first hand, how despite having documented unbelievable crimes including the fact that Canada's former Prime Minister Paul Martin's father was responsible for what happened to these orphans, you cannot get your work published anywhere. “In an effort to get out the truth, I have decided to create my own web site and put my stories on there and advertise my services. It's really nice to see that there are other journalists out there who won't sellout for money care and care about the truth.” Referring to a recent article in the Arctic Beacon about a victim of the Illuminati mind control programs named Mauri, Hahn added: “Your recent interview with Mauri really caught my attention because I have interviewed other survivors who were brought to Canada from the States as children and subjected to to the exact same horrific experimentation as Mauri. “What’s interesting is that hundreds of survivors recount the same experiences. They can’t all be lying and their stories need to be told despite the sensitivity and despite the resistance people have in believing their government cold be involved in such things.” During Hahn’s research, she talked with numerous victims, acclaimed psychiatrists and other experts, pinning the abuse on government funded programs using unscrupulous doctors, some having former Nazi Party connections. The following is a segment of her story from Freedom Magazine, highlighting the enormity of the child experimentation problem. The entire story can be found at http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol37i1/index.html. “Children’s advocate Carol Rutz, author of A Nation Betrayed, told Freedom that based on her research, the Duplessis Orphans became prime subjects for psychiatric testing and abuse. “These children, she said, were defenseless — easy prey for ruthless doctors who inflicted pain and death under the guise of science. “Many boys and girls, she said, “had no parents to return home to, hence the extent of their abuse needed no cover-up. Who would tell? They could be beaten or drugged into submission.” “Orphans at St. Jean de Dieu were selected to receive electroshock, drugs and other “treatments” primarily based on whether or not they had immediate family members who might come to their defense or protection, said one source who worked at the facility. “Rod Vienneau said Quebec psychiatrists viewed these children, who most often came from the province’s poorest families, as “unwanted.” They emptied Quebec’s orphanages, he said, “sending the ‘unwanted’ children to the psychiatric hospitals where psychiatrists could do any experiment that they wanted to do on 100,000 children — and no one would know.” (See “He Had No Brain!”.) “Evidence suggests that many boys and girls became victims of a psychiatric eugenics* program with connections to prominent members of the U.S. and Canadian psychiatric establishments. “Defectives” was the sweeping label that Canadian psychiatrist Charles Kirk Clarke, a founder of the Canadian Mental Health Association, applied to immigrants from eastern and central Europe.10 Another Canadian eugenicist, Helen MacMurchy, a provincial “inspector of the feeble-minded,” campaigned for sterilization to prevent certain mothers from “filling the cradle with degenerate babies.”11 “Freedom addressed this subject in a 1996 cover report in its Canadian edition entitled “The Ethnic Cleansing of the ‘Mentally Unfit’ — Sterilization in Canada.” The authors wrote, “The tools of the eugenicists thus became immigration controls, birth control, sterilization and finally euthanasia as carried out by the Nazis,” noting that the first three methods had been employed in Canada — resulting in, among other things, the involuntary sterilization of thousands of women, many of them Canadian Indian or other minorities.12 “With fresh allegations now surfacing that many Duplessis Orphans died or disappeared, the fourth item on the eugenicists’ agenda, euthanasia, certainly warrants official investigation.” Hahn’s story then went on to charge that hundreds of innocent children were eventually killed during the horrific experimentation. “Indeed, the bodies of hundreds or even thousands of Duplessis Orphans, buried near Quebec psychiatric hospitals, may today hold the key to documenting what survivors have called "organized psychiatric genocide." “Montreal attorney Daniel Lighter suggested that Quebec officials permit exhumation of bodies buried on hospital grounds to determine to what extent Orphans may have been used for psychiatric experimentation, including lobotomies, electroshock and mass drugging.
Edit Links2007-02-28 Mercury Rising A Possible Link Between Chemical Exposure And Autism May Have Been Overlooked In The Very Earliest Cases At [External Link]

In 1943, a child known only as Frederick W. became part of the first medical report of a strange new disorder. Frederick was Case 2 of 11 children whose behavior "differed markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far," wrote Dr. Leo Kanner, the psychiatrist at Johns Hopkins University who introduced the syndrome to the world and named it "autism."



Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,General,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,jQIrHLtt,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,vMBsKPaN,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,



Edit Links2007-00-00 Senate Community Affairs references Committee - Inquiry in children in Institutions

Allars Report,Criminal Activity,t has been reported back in 1997, that “experimental” drugs were administered to Clients in Orphanages by medical practitioner (s) in conjunction with CSL who at the same period were producing/administering Pituitary derived Human Growth Hormone (hGH) with the Medical Practitioners administering (toxic drugs) to clients (St Joseph’s Orphanage, Broadmeadows) who were legislated (under the Health Act) members of Human Pituitary Advisory Committee (H.P.A.C.)



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Estimated Date

SENATE COMMUNITY AFFAIRS REFERENCES COMMITTEE INQUIRY INTO CHILDREN IN INSTITUTIONAL CARE Organizations Name making submission Shortkids Downunder Address P.O. Box 250 KINGLAKE VIC. 3763 Telephone (03) 5786 1938 Author Email Mr. Michael O’Meara (Chairperson) shortkids_1999@yahoo.com Date Submitted Method (Email) community.affairs.sen@aph.gov.au Is this Submission available for public comment? Yes   Note; Information contained in this report refers to The “Allars Report” (Senate Inquiry, June 1994) in which does not make a decision of a Criminal nature that is referred to in this submission. However this submission does refer to questionable “Criminal Activity” as disclosed in the “Allars Report” namely;   “We believe that the report completed by Professor Allars, her executive summaries and Dr Lawrence's speech to the House prove beyond any question that there had been significant breaches of the law as it applies to a wide variety of areas. These include the manufacture of the hormone, including the collection of glands, distribution of the hormone by various agencies, including HPAC, CSL and others as detailed in the Allars report, and non-disclosure of possible side effects.” “Neither compensation nor the issue of criminal or civil liability of medical practitioners were part of my terms of reference. Consequently I made no recommendation on these issues. I make no comment now. (Submission No.92, p.4. Allars Report)” “…harvesting the pituitary glands under completely uncontrolled conditions must border on criminal negligence - has ever been held to account. Nor have any members of HPAC, who sought kudos and career advancement ahead of prudent medical practice and patient safety.”   1 Aims of this submission It has been reported back in 1997, that “experimental” drugs were administered to Clients in Orphanages by medical practitioner (s) in conjunction with CSL who at the same period were producing/administering Pituitary derived Human Growth Hormone (hGH) with the Medical Practitioners administering (toxic drugs) to clients (St Joseph’s Orphanage, Broadmeadows) who were legislated (under the Health Act) members of Human Pituitary Advisory Committee (H.P.A.C.) To investigate the connection with CSL, Walter and Eliza Institute, Department of Health and Family Services, and Medical Practitioners practicing in Orphanages who were also practicing privately using hGH and Anabolic Steroids. To submit documentation pertaining to “sterilization” procedures upon the clients of Orphanages as reports in Red Deer (Canadian) Orphanage and other Institutions, using Anabolic Steroids and anti-psychotic drugs, which appear to be the guidelines of the American Eugenics Society & with CSL et al who report to follow the American standards.   To investigate “Clinical Trials” and procedures upon the clients of Orphanages as reported at St Joseph’s Orphanage, Broadmeadows, by doctors of HPAC.   To investigate “Clinical Trials”, “The Testes, Clinical and Experimental Studies” and procedures upon the clients of Institutions as reported at Kingston Centre, Kingston, by doctors of HPAC. 2 Overview of Submission An investigation by the Melbourne Age newspaper revealed that hundreds of children in orphanages and babies' homes, including wards of state, were used in the experiments and studies over 25 years, with investigation showing that medical practitioners of the Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Programme experimenting on Humans institutionalized. These “human guinea pigs” , living and/or deceased, carry a wide range of side effects from this experimentation from clinical trials (without consent) and could be unknowingly incubating Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease. (CJD) An investigation by the “Shortkids Downunder” revealed that hundreds of children in orphanages and babies' homes, together with a Melbourne Geriatric Institution were subjected to experimental trials by treating doctors of HPAC using Gonadrophins and Anabolic Steroids. 3 Scope of the Submission Title; Orphans experimented on without consent. Alberta sterilization victims also used as guinea pigs. As many as 100 of the children at the centre of the Alberta sterilization scandal of the late 1960s and early 1970s were also used as guinea pigs in drug trials, the National Post has learned. Parents, who did not consent to the sterilization or medical experimentation, which included the administration of powerful steroids and anti-psychotic drugs. Its effect on children is said to be akin to hitting them over the head with a sledge hammer. http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/shortboys/web/guineepigs.html Title; Orphan fears she was used as a drug guinea pig. More links to CSL using kids as drug guinea pigs. The Age newspaper in Melbourne has revealed that the experiments on children at some babies' homes and orphanages included trials of vaccines that did not work, or failed to pass safety tests on animals. Broadmeadows Babies' Home, one of the orphanages used by scientists for medical experiments up until 1970. The cluster of red-brick buildings on the site of the former babies' home are now part of Penola Co-Ed Catholic College's Broadmeadows Campus. But seeing them yesterday made Mrs Di-Federico angry. http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/shortboys/web/Difederico.html Title; Orphans experimented on without consent. The Age who gave consent for the use of the infants. CSL's company secretary, Mr Peter Toohy, said in a statement to The Age: CSL Limited, an independent public company, could not comment on clinical trial protocols of the era when the then laboratories were an arm of the Commonwealth Department of Health.'' An investigation by the Melbourne Age newspaper revealed that hundreds of children in orphanages and babies' homes, including wards of state, were used in the experiments and studies over 25 years. They were used to test vaccines and antigens for toxic effects before the new products were used on children in the wider community. http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/shortboys/web/broadmeadows.html Title; Link between St Joseph's Broadmeadows (Orphanage), Kingston Centre, Kingston, CSL, hGH, Anabolic Steroids, Short Statured Boys and Tall Girls administered by treating Endocrinologists and Pediatricians of HPAC The writer of this submission was admitted to St Joseph's Babies Home in Broadmeadows in 1961 for relinquishment. It was the same year Wettenahall (a member of HPAC) was experimenting on babies with CSL vaccines. In 1972, Wettenhall et al, Burger et al and de Krester et al were experimenting on boys, girls, men and women using toxic drugs such as hGH, HPG produced by CSL and anabolic steroids to produce the male contraceptive pill. As members of HPAC both doctors experimented in two institutions in Melbourne under grants by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Wettenhall et al and Burger et al were both members of HPAC and were known to be experimenting on kids as young as 2 years of age. Members of HPAC treated children with hGH, Anabolic steroids, Diethylstilbestrol (DES) as private and Public patients without consent. CSL supplied drugs to members of HPAC with the approval of the National Biological Standards Laboratory a.k.a. T.G.A. Shortkids Downunder http://mc2.vicnet.net.au/home/shortboys/web/index.html Tall Girls Inc.               http://www.users.bigpond.com/jadetg/
Edit Links2006-09-26 WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF PHIPILP JENKINS

I have published extensively on matters of child abuse and molestation, and child protection. Between 1999 and 2001, I had access to a series of bulletin boards frequented by dealers, traffickers and manufacturers of child pornography, and also major consumers and collectors of this material

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Australia,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,Canada,Death,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,jHENLJffEC,Medical Issues,Neerkol,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,Queensland,United Kingdom,Vaccination,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,



Edit Links2006-07-05 BRW Some religious organisations are taking advantage of lax taxation regulations, to the cost of ordinary Australians



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1hXqayif,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bmkcoOxFX,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BzeGdTTqQz,CErFStBLEAULjV,CIzQVwUJiEfGJAqPr,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUBppPIJXKa,datgGLpwxcV,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hfeohBKw,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IFAdXcZupG,IMtuYfXNCPEdz,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jJvCOENBbtPxmAjNtcb,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,kixvykWbM,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,KTmySKXlCgfZsRM,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lMTgOaGfmjC,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,QJBYQgWSejpNLGNNyob,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCdaKSuvzK,sTgobvkFSc,tKnnJjqfiVRbO,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,uoSCFaBfYowmsiunWEN,uppamjKV,vMBsKPaN,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WesZeRGYtlJFf,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,XPULOCLkyEU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,XzMfMMnMFy,yaQblAQoYH,YhOQHcUv,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,gwGriSvdRSuolBG,



Edit Links2004-12-14 Review of SV40 contamination of polio vaccine

Media reports published claims that some batches of injectable polio vaccines produced in Australia from 1957 to 1963 were contaminated with simian virus called SV40 and that this may be linked to the development of some cancers. The Therapeutic Goods Administration commissioned an external expert in the field of infectious disease to review the published literature concerning the human health risk of vaccines contaminated with SV40. Professor Cossart AO is Bosch Professor of Infectious Disease at the University of Sydney and a world renowned virologist. No new information has become available since the completion of this report.



Vaccination,,,Australia,



Review of the health consequences of SV40 contamination of poliomyelitis vaccines, and in particular a possible association with cancers. Prepared by: Professor Yvonne Cossart, A0 Bosch Professor of Infectious Diseases, University of Sydney 14'~D ecember, 2004 Abstract The published papers concerning the human health risk of vaccines contaminated with SV40 virus falls into three groups: those published in the 1960s when the virus was discovered, a second group dating from the period when the two related human viruses BK and JC were described and the third recent period when molecular techniques were applied to the problem. Group 1: SV40 was discovered in 1960 and shown To be a common infection in healthy rhesus monkeys To belong to the polyoma virus family To cause tumours (especially ependymomas, osteosarcomas, mesotheliomas and lymphomas) when injected into baby hamsters To be incompletely killed by the heat and formalin treatment used to inactivate polioviruses during "Salk" vaccine manufacture To be capable of infecting human recipients of contaminated vaccine To be capable of transforming human cells into cancer cells in the laboratory Immediate steps were taken to free the vaccine seed cultures of SV40 and to ensure that all future batches of vaccine (both the inactivated "Salk" and the then prototype attenuated "Sabin" types) were made in monkey kidney cultures free of SV40. This was accomplished in 1963. Many inillions of children and adults had already been inoculated with polio vaccine before these measures were fuiiy effective. It is not icnown which of the early batches actually contained infectious doses of SV40, but tests of recipients showed that many produced SV40 antibodies. This could be the result of either SV40 infection or "immunisation" by the killed SV40 in the vaccine. Concern focussed on the risk to very young children but no increased risk of cancer was found in follow up of over 1000 vaccinees. As the tumour types induced in hamsters are rare these studies were supplemented with much larger studies comparing cancer registry data for children born (and presumably mostly irnrnunised) during the period between introduction of polio vaccine and eradication of SV40 fiom manufacture (ie 1957-63) and children born within the preceding or subsequent five year periods. These studies were reassuring, although it was recognised that the follow up was not sufficiently long term to detect a risk of the cancers such as mesothelioma which occur in middle age and beyond. There were also some discrepant reports but in retrospect these (including the single Australian study) have significant design limitations. Group 2: The issue was revived in the 1970s when two new human polyomaviruses (BK and JC) were discovered. These cause turnours and degenerative neurological disease in humans. They also share antigens and DNA sequences with SV40 which may cause cross reactions leading to false positive results in diagnostic tests. Surveys showed that serological evidence of infection with the two new agents was common in healthy people and that disease emerged almost exclusively in immune deficient individuals. Attempts to isolate SV40 from human tumours, even by explanting the cells in culture, were generally unsuccessful, but one typical SV40 strain was obtained form a melanoma and two others fiom diseased brain tissue. Serological surveys showed that earlier findings that up to 5% of the population had low titre SV40 antibody were mostly, if not entirely, due to cross reactions with the much commoner human polyoma viruses. It was thus concluded that while SV40 involvement in human turnours could not be absolutely denied it must be very rare indeed. Group 3 : The most recent group of publications has reported the use of molecular techniques to detect SV40 DNA in tumours. The results have been conflicting, some studies showing no positives others a high proportion. Most workers have focussed on detection of the viral oncogene (T antigen) andlor its expression. Persistence of these sequences integrated into the host cell genome would be expected from experimental studies of polyomavirus induced turnours of other species. Unfortunately the SV40 sequences of interest are widely used as tools in molecular laboratories creating a very substantial risk of cross contamination when testing turnour samples. This casts doubt on these studies which has not yet been resolved. Another new avenue of research has revealed that the SV40 oncogene (Tag) acts through complexing with p53 and affects the pRb pathway of cell cycle control. Genetic mutations of these control elements makes the cell exquisitely sensitive to SV40 transformation. These mutations occur naturally in the population, and confer cancer susceptibility on individuals who often develop tumours of similar type to those associated with SV40. This may need to be taken into account in future epidemiological studies. Conclusion: The literature establishes a plausible mechanism for human carcinogenesis by SV40 virus. Studies of the prevalence of SV40 antibody in the community and the presence of SV40 in human tumours do not absolutely exclude the possibility of rare involvement of the virus in individual cases of cancer, but fail to provide evidence of statistically greater risk for people imrnunised during the period when SV40 was likely to have been present in polio vaccine. This conclusion has also been reached by several international review panels. Discovery and Background In 1960 Sweet and ille em an' described 'tacuolating agent", a previously unrecognised virus derived fiom monkey kidney cell cultures intended for vaccine production. It was named because of an unusual cytopathic effect on kidney cell cultures from grivet (Cercopithecus) monkeys although most isolates came fiom apparently normal kidney cultures derived fiom healthy rhesus monkeys. Soon afterwards the new virus was designated "simian virus 40" (SV40) under a scheme proposed by a group of international collaborators working in research groups, regulatory bodies and vaccine manufacturers to define safety standards for the manufacture of vaccines in cell culture systems (the properties of the first 57 of these are described by Hull RN in "The Simian Viruses" 1968~). Adventitious agents were a concem because it was not clear whether they might have different inactivation kinetics to the vaccine virus, and, in addition, a number of the newer vaccines consisted of living attenuated virus and could not be subjected to conventional inactivation procedures. Polio vaccine was the first human vaccine to be made in cell culture. The new virus was soon shown to belong to the papova group of viruses3 which included the wart (papilloma) viruses and polyoma, an obscure virus of mice which seldom caused disease in the wild, but once grown to high concentrations in the laboratory could cause many different tumours when injected into mice or hamsters. SV40 was soon shown to produce tumours when injected into hamsters4:, and to be able to transform human cells in culture6. Surveys of old world monkeys imported into the US and Europe by medical research organisations and vaccine manufacturers showed that almost 70% of rhesus monkeys were SV40 antibody positive, and that high levels (up to 10' infectious doses of viruslml) could be found in cultures of their kidneys7. This gave rise ts considerable concern &out the long term risk to millions of children who had received doses of poliovaccine containing SV40 since some viral infectivity might remain even in inactivated (Salk) vaccine treated with formalin for sufficient time to kill polio itself. Characteristics of SV40 virus The physical and chemical properties of SV40 are typical of the polyoma family. Table 1. Notable features are the shape and size (icosohedral, 40 nm diameter) and the genetic organisation which encodes 3 different proteins (VP1-3) which are incorporated into the virus particles, as well as two important proteins (the large and small T antigens) which interact with the growth regulatory pathways in the infected cell. These T antigens are potential causes of unregulated growth by infected cells and subsequent tumour production. SV40 is substantially more resistant to formalin inactivation than poliovirus 8,9 but the treatment with 1 :4000 formalin used to inactivate poliovaccine would reduce the titre by >99% over 50 hours.1° The polyoma virus family Many animal species harbour their own specific polyomaviruses, Table 2. In general the polyoma of one species grows poorly or not at all in cells or animals of different species, but there are important exceptions such as the ability of bovine polyomavirus to infect primate cells. Polyomavirus infections have a variety of clinical manifestations. The best known are nephritis and ureteric stenosis, progressive brain disease and tumours which may be of many different pathological types. However the great majority of infections are asymptomatic. The pathologic potential of human polyomaviruses was not recognised until unexplained disease in immune suppressed patients were investigated and characteristic virus particles were found in the lesions. There proved to be two different human polyomaviruses designated JC (originally found in the brain of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy") and BK (which originated in a ureteric turnour)12. Antibody studies showed that many adults had been infected with these viruses13. This pattern of asymptomatic lifelong infection in most members of the community with disease occurring only in a few individuals, usually with inadequate immune function, is now known to be typical of the entire family of viruses. When polyomaviruses of different species are compared viruses from closely related hosts (such as humans and other primates) are more alike than those from evolutionarily distance hosts eg mice and birds. These resemblances mean that there is significant cross reactivity between diagnostic reagents developed for SV40, BK and JC virus detection (including T antigen dete~t ion'~,a'~nd) antibody measure~nent'~,'~. Growth of SV40 SV40 infection of a cell may lead to three different outcomes. Virus growth: In "permissive" cells SV40 grows relatively slowly and the distinctive vacuolation of the host cell and presence of nuclear inclusion bodies do not develop until 1-2 weeks after inoculation. Electron microscopy reveals packed arrays of virus particles in the nucleus. Virus production leads to cell death. Virus growth has two phases, the "early" phase when the virus "large T" and "small t" genes are translated and the late phase when VP1-3 and new viral DNA are produced and assembled into infectious particles. All the virus proteins are synthesised in the cytoplasm then quickly transported to the nucleus where they can be detected by specific staining. Abortive infection: SV40 DNA may persist in cells which are unable to support production of new viral particles. The early antigens are produced, but both viral DNA and antigens may be in low concentration. Infected cells may however become highly permissive and produce large amounts of virus if cultured in vitro. Such viral DNA can sometimes be rescued by transfection of the cell with the T antigen gene from a different but closely related member of the polyomavirus family. This has been shown experimentally for SV40, BK and JC viruses. Transformation: SV40 DIVA may become integrated into the genome of the host cell. If the sequences encoding the viral T antigen are intact they can be translated and the unregulated antigen expression leads to increased cell turnover. When multiple copies are integrated malignant transformation of the cell is especially likely to ensue. Mechanism of oncogenesis by polyomaviruses - role of the T antigen The large T antigen performs two main functions during virus replication. The first involves binding with a specific "origin of replication" in the virus DNA to establish virus DNA synthesis and the second is to promote cell division by interaction with P53 a turnour suppressor protein important in the control of cell division. New virus DNA is then synthesised by the cellular DNA polymerases in concert with the copying of the cellular DNA prior to cell division. In rare instances the combination of T antigen and P53 becomes "fixed" and normal control of the cell cycle is lost. This is usually a result of over-expression of T antigen from multiple copies of the virus gene sequences integrated in the host cell genome. Other molecular pathways for transformation by T antigen have been proposed where only part of the gene is transcribed and Tag is not detectable18. However these refer to very artificial experimental systems and remain unproven under natural conditions19. Other virus antigens also play a significant role in virus replication and transformation at least under some circumstances, but they do not appear to act without large T activity. Immune response to polyomavirus infection Infected individuals produce antibodies against the virus structural proteins and the T antigens. Turnour-bearing animals have very high levels of antibody to the large T antigen. Specific antibodies neutralise infection and have been used to free vaccine seed stocks of the virus. The production of neutralising antibody by infected animals down regulates virus production but does not eliminate infection2'. Cell mediated antibody responses have been poorly characterised despite the significance implied by the emergence of polyoma viruses and clinical symptoms in immune suppressed subjects. Methods of detection of SV40 in polio vaccine and tumours The original discovery of SV40 was made by growing the virus in cell culture, and this remains the gold standard because it correlates with infectivity. It is laborious, time consuming and requires availability of cells which are known to be highly permissive. In situatians where the virus is down regulated explanting the cells in laboratory culture will often activate virus growth which can then be much more readily detected. Other ways of detecting productive infection are by staining cells with labelled antibodies against the virus proteins (VPl is especially useful as it bears the receptor through which the virus and cell interact) and by finding virus particles by electron microscopy. These methods require fairly high level of virus presence, but are particularly valuable for showing what proportion, and which cell types are infected. T antigen and viral DNA are also present but do not define virus production or infectivity These last two markers (viral DNA and T antigen) are present in abortively infected and transformed cells, where viral particles and structural proteins are absent. Integration of viral DNA is the hallmark of transformed cells where it characteristically causes over-expression df T antigen, Because of its stability, viral DNA can be detected even after effective formalin inactivation of all infectivity as in routine paraffin blocks prepared for histopathology. The Southern blot methods which demonstrate integration require high levels of viral DNA in the specimen. Newer methods which amplify DNA sequences form parts of the virus (eg the polymerase chain reaction, PCR) are much more sensitive but can seldom be adapted to show whether the virus sequences are integrated. Over the years all these methods have been used to assess the infectivity and oncogenic potential of polio vaccine. Infectious SV40 cannot always be obtained from experimentally induced tumours or from natural tumours in infected hosts but early studies showed that both viral DNA and T antigen were easily found. More recent studies based on PCR amplification , of SV40 sequences have detected "viral" DNA in tumours which lack T antigen or its messenger RNA. It is these studies which have reignited concern about the risk of cancer after administration of SV40 contaminated vaccine. No plausible biological mechanism has been put forward to explain how these sequences might transform cells without producing the effector (T antigen) and recently it has been suggested that these PCR results may be false positives due to contamination of the specimens with DNA sequences from molecular experiments which often use SV40 sequences as tools. This is supported by the demonstration that many of the reported positives from tumours have been found to have a deletion mutation which is found in the experimental plasmids but not in infectious virus.2' Detection of SV40 in polin vaccine Two types of polio vaccine have been used in Australia. Inactivated ("Salk") vaccine was used from 1958 onwards but was almost completely supplanted by live attenuated ("Sabin") vaccine after 1960. These vaccines were manufactured from different virus seeds and in different production facilities. Safety testing involved quite different criteria. The critical factor defining the safety of inactivated vaccine was the demonstration that the vaccine contained no viable poliovirus. For the attenuated vaccine the issue was the lack of virulence when injected intra-cerebrally into monkeys. However for both vaccines all of the early virus stocks and vaccines were produced in primary rhesus or cynomolgous monkey kidney cell cultures. large batches of cells needed were made by pooling cells derived from groups of 10-30 animals, and it has been estimated that at least 70% of these pools yielded SV40 in the early 1960s. Direct testing of vaccine lots for viable virus has been very limited and many batches probably contained a mixture of killed and viable virus.22 It should noted that the US requirement for polio vaccine seeds (and production lots) be free of SV40 came into effect in 1961 but existing stocks of the "old" product were used until expiry in 1963. In other countries the date of exclusion of SV 40 from vaccines in use varied, but there was little delay in most western countries. The natural course of SV40 infection in monkeys SV 40 infection is common amongst wild caught rhesus monkeys. The proportion of antibody positive animals rises with increasing age. Infectious virus can be recovered from their rsues after they have been grown in culture, but spontaneous disease is very uncommon2'. nimals which are immunosuppressed or have S N infection however develop tumours and a 'ML like syndrome24. SV40 virus has been demonstrated in these tumours using primers to letect several different regions of the virus2'. The mode of transmission is uncertain. 5xcretion in the urine and inhalation of environmental aerosols is a likely scenario. Polyoma infection of mice is classically transmitted vertically but there is little evidence about this for SV40 under natural conditions. SV40 infection of humans After the discovery of SV40 recipients of polio vaccine were tested for the appearance of neutralising antibody to the virus. This was readily detected but it could be interpreted as the result of antibody response to inactivated SV40 rather than infection26. No systematic attempts were made to recover virus so it is not clear whether the persistence of this antibody is due to persistent low level infection or simply an inadvertent "vaccination" against ~ ~ 4 0 In both the US and Europe about one third of recipients of attenuated oral vaccine containing 100-1000 plaque forming units of SV40 were shown to excrete virus in the faeces for several weeksz8 but there was little production of antibodg9. This evidence of infectability of humans by SV40 was directly confirmed by inoculation of volunteers, using the nasal route3'. Lastly, surveys for SV40 antibody in people from regions where contact with rhesus monkeys is common showed higher seroprevalence of anti-SV40 antibody than surveys in Europe or the New World. More recent seroprevalence surveys using recombinant virus like particles derived fiom BK JC and SV40 show a low prevalence of reactors (about 6%) with the SV40 reagents but almost all of these disaP P ear when the sera are absorbed with BK and JC human polyomavirus particles . There are also reports that about 6% of hospitalised children in 1999 - ie born long after use of the SV40 contamination of vaccine - had neutralising antibody to ~ ~ 4 0 T~hi's. ra ises the issue of persistence of SV40 in the human population unrelated to current (or even past) use of SV40 contaminated vaccines. There are small scale studies of sera for children prior to the introduction of polio vaccine33 which show less than 5% reactors. Vertical transmission would be the most probable mechanism, but the published studies34 of babies born to mothers who were inoculated with SV40 containing vaccines are uninformative because vaccination histories of the infants are not provided. Molecular s,tudies of SV40 in cancer patients often include normal control subjects and there are reports of detection of SV40 DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes and other tissues of some antibody positive controls35. There are very few reports of isolation of infectious SV 40 from non-vaccinated humans, the most convincin from two patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and one with melano m6! a . None of these three patients had been immunised with inactivated poliovaccine. Detection of SV40 in human tumours There is only one clear report of the isolation of SV 40 from a human tumour (see above), but there are numerous reports of the demonstration of SV40 antigens or DNA sequences in tumours (including one where full length SV40 DNA was rescued by transfection of susceptible cellsJ7) . Interest has naturally focussed on the tumour types known to be caused by SV40 in hamsters, the most susceptible species. These are primary brain cancers (especially ependyrnoma), mesotheliomas, osteosarcomas and non-Hodgkins lymphomas. The studies fall into two groups; observational and case control. Ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours: These rare brain tumours occur mainly in infants and very young children. Very few if any patients with these tumours in current US series could have received poliovaccines during the period of known SV40 contamination in 1957-63. All but one of 14 published studies of SV40 in human brain turnours report some positive findings in tumours and far fewer positives in controls. A variety of techniques have been used, ranging from culture of turnour cells to PCR detection of virus sequences (Table 3). This technical disparity in both sensitivity and target makes it hard to compare studies but the positive findings with all methodologies strengthens the overall case for the presence of papovavirus, or at least papovavirus genes in some brain tumours - especially ependymomas and choroid plexus tumours. It is however not absolutely clear that the viral antigens and sequences are derived from SV40 rather than the related human papovaviruses BK and JC 38:9. Recently a study which analysed the nucleotide sequences of three different regions of the putative SV40 genome showed that they were all SV40 related40. IIcrwewr sequence resu!ts gcnerzted by other groups have strongly suggested contamination of the samples with amplified product derived fiom one or other of the widely used experimental vector plasmids, which have incorporated SV40 T antigen gene sequences, leading to false positive results. Interpretation of findings from different centres is also complicated by the differences in geographical distribution of rhesus monkeys and putative human exposure to ~ ~ 4 0T~her'e . are also very great discrepancies in the rate of detection of papovavirus sequences when comparable methods are used4', and controversy about interpretation ofboth positive and negative findings43. Osteosarcoma: Carbone et a1 44 studied samples fiom patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a genetic disorder where only one functional allele of p53 is present. These patients develop many turnours including osteosarcoma and SV 40 T Ag might be especially potent as a carcinogen in this situation since it binds directly to p53. 11/36 of the osteosarcomas were positive for SV40 T antigen sequences. Widening of the study to p53 normal patients in different countries gave mixed results which could be attributable to environmental or technical factors. Osterosarcoma is mainly a disease of children and adolescents so any cohort effect of injections of SV-40 in 1957-63 should already be apparent. Mesotheliomas: Detection of SV40 sequences in mesotheliomas has been reported from many centres 45 46 47 48 ,4 9 but others, including an International Working report negative findings5 1 ,5 5, 5 3). '
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Do I often wonder what it would have been like to have been left in a loving home with my family intact, to share Christmas morning with all my brothers, sisters, grandparents and mother? Sure I do! I do not delude myself that it would have been all roses and always loving. We would have had many trying situations but we would have had the only unconditional love that is available, that of the love of family.[207]



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Chapter 4 - Treatment and care of children in institutions Do I often wonder what it would have been like to have been left in a loving home with my family intact, to share Christmas morning with all my brothers, sisters, grandparents and mother? Sure I do! I do not delude myself that it would have been all roses and always loving. We would have had many trying situations but we would have had the only unconditional love that is available, that of the love of family.[207] 4.1 The highly evocative and emotive language that is constantly repeated through the submissions and evidence received from across Australia is testimony to the nature of the treatment of children in institutions over many decades. Language such as 'my sentence', 'concentration camp', 'prison', 'hell-hole', 'felt like a convict', 'entombed in institutions', 'inmates', 'incarcerated', 'internship', 'tortured', 'nightmare', 'release', 'outside world', 'victims', 'survivors' graphically describe the feelings that remain about the treatment received at an early age of their lives. 4.2 It must be remembered at the outset of this chapter that a large number of the children placed into the 'care' of the state, especially during the 1950s and 60s, were status offenders who had been charged with neglect, no visible means of support, being uncontrollable or exposed to moral danger. These were not crimes of the child. They were crimes of the parents or, in a sense, crimes of a society that at the time was not providing anywhere near sufficient help and assistance to families living in underprivileged social circumstances and often desperate poverty. As one witness succinctly said: 'We were not bad then and we are not bad now'. 4.3 Yet these children were placed in receiving depots and institutions with other children who were guilty of various misdemeanours or more serious criminal activity. The many submissions and evidence from those children who found themselves in this situation at such a young and vulnerable age can only give a sense of the full extent of the trauma and horror they experienced when confronted with this totally foreign world and way of life. 4.4 One of the most tragic consequences of this time that was expressed in so many submissions is a powerful feeling of guilt and shame that has haunted people throughout their life. These unnecessarily mistaken feelings are the result of attitudes beaten, both psychologically and physically, into children during their time at so many of the institutions. But the children were not guilty. The events and experiences of that time were not their fault. 4.5 As will be seen in this chapter such events and experiences included being repeatedly and constantly subjected to deliberate and callous cruelty, humiliation, abuse and deprivation of basic necessities of life such as healthy food and diet, proper clothing, medical care and education, and most tellingly the emotional support, love and psychological necessities required by a young maturing child. A breakdown by type of abuse described by care leavers in their submissions is in Appendix 7. Receiving children into care Arrival I snatched at each shaft of the iron fence as the policeman pulled us towards the great double gate. The gravel crunched under our feet as we drew near the dark-red building. Looking up to the balcony on the second floor, Billy read to us the cast iron words 'ORPHAN ASYLUM 1865'. This was a grim place, this Ballarat Orphanage. Solid, like a fortress. (Sub 18) The very first thing I saw of my destination was a very large steel gate. I remember the clang it made when it was shut and the sound of a bunch of keys being turned. (Parkside Baltara - Sub 278) 'I arrived at a large grey depressing looking building which was Bidura.' Being taken to Bidura was a revelation to many - 'Bidura was our first stop and what a culture shock it was coming to this cold dismal institution'. I felt my life had come to an end after the door was closed behind me. I missed my mother enormously and used to cry myself to sleep at night, the feelings of loneliness and isolation were terrifying. I was scared and I wondered what would become of me. (SA Nedlands - Sub 231) They took me to that terrible place called Parramatta Girls' Home...I am quite sure that I was in shock - with the big high wall around it and all gates and doors all locked, no way out no one with a smile or a bit of kindness - I was there for a long time. (Parramatta - Sub 377) Health checks, delousing and body searches 4.6 Reception at some institutions involved a number of health and hygiene procedures. Delousing by cutting and washing hair in kerosene was commonly practiced. However, the manner by which procedures such as internal examinations were performed was most traumatic, especially for young girls who in some instances were not even teenagers. Upon arrival each individual was stripped searched in the full sense of the term, made to take a shower and had delousing solution applied to their hair. You were then issued with a shapeless uniform, some underwear and sandshoes with no laces or thongs. The institutional programming had begun. (Wilson - Sub 58) I was subjected to a humiliating, distressing, and painful internal examination by a doctor, who used heavy stainless steel instruments. I had never been examined internally prior to this, and was absolutely destroyed. (Parramatta - Sub 284) On arrival back at Bidura I was given the standard vaginal tests...When I protested I was told they knew "how quickly I would open my legs for a boy!" I was 9 years old! I had no idea what they were talking about. (Sub 258)[208] 4.7 Dr Joanna Penglase, in her thesis Orphans of the Living, under a section titled 'State-sanctioned rape' notes there was a provision in the NSW Child Welfare Act 1939 for certifying wards were free of venereal disease. However it appeared thousands of girls were given vaginal examinations on the pretext of testing for 'promiscuity'. Dr Penglase quotes from an interview with a child welfare department field officer who in referring to this procedure commented it 'was just straight out assault, there's no doubt about it, it's a wonder somebody hasn't complained about being assaulted all those years ago'.[209] Removal of belongings and clothes I was taken to a room where my bag containing everything I owned in my life was taken away and nothing was ever returned. Even the clothes I had on were taken from me as I was told to put on the stock clothing. (Bidura - Sub 351)[210] Royleston was a terrible place to find yourself, at any age. Each time you entered, you were reduced to a manageable unit, private property was removed and never seen again, Government day clothes were issued and you were given a number, this number was your tooth brush number. (Royleston - Sub 321) She confiscated all my clothes, all my belongings, then used a pair of large black shears to cut off my shoulder length hair. There was no care taken to style the hair, it was HACKED.... I was issued with regulation clothing, a number (43), horrible long dresses made of rough material, clumpy shoes and disgusting bloomers and singlets. I was not given a bra. (Parramatta - Sub 284) The state wards...were sent to Winlaten remand centre. This had a deeply emotional effect on me, as I was treated like a prisoner. I had to strip, then I was required to put on clothes they provided. I was confined to an exercise yard during the day then locked in a bedroom on my own at night. (Sub 166) I was sent to Lynwood Hall at Guildford. Every thing that my foster parents had given me, clothes, jewellery, shoes, my treasures and my bank account were taken from me. I never saw any of them again. (Lynwood - Sub 325) 4.8 Many care leavers reported presents and other gifts being routinely removed from the children; of being searched upon return from outside visits and having food packages, clothing and comics taken. I received a parcel from an Aunt, it was a beautiful hand-knitted red jumper which I never wore as it was taken away from me and I didn't know what happened to it until I saw it being used to wash the floor. For a little girl who was so pleased with her new jumper it was devastating. (Salvation Army, Cottesloe - Sub 184) We were never allowed to keep the presents as the nuns used to take them off us when we got back to the orphanage and would sell them at their fetes. (St Joseph's Subiaco - Sub 172) My mother used to visit us every 2-4 weeks. I can still visualise her coming up the hill carrying two shopping bags with some goodies and toys for us, but they were always taken off us when she left. (Parkerville - Sub 181) I never owned a Doll or Teddy Bear. Those that did had to leave them in a "Special Room" on the top floor, where they would be shown to visitors, but rarely taken down for us kids to play with. (WR Black - Sub 409) 4.9 Letters were regularly censored at best or simply not delivered. The Committee heard of one 70 year old lady who accessed her DOCS file only to discover that 'inside were letters, letters that her Father had written to her and which she never received, letters also from her siblings which she never received and letters that she had written to her Father that hadn't been posted...Ivy has always wondered why her Father didn't reply to her letters'.[211] Physical environment and living conditions Buildings and accommodation The buildings we grew up in were unsuitable. They were architecturally marvellous castles, but growing up in huge cold empty spaces that did not resemble family homes at all was quite traumatising...for little children. (Burnside - Committee Hansard 3.2.04) What a shock! This place had bars on the windows every door was locked, the staff all jangled when they walked as the keys hung from the waist. (Lynwood Hall - Sub 258) I was sent to Mittagong. Mittagong was a large property Federation style buildings with contemporary add on schoolrooms and a relative modern building for small children. Mittagong was a horror show. (Sub 321) Now my life lay within the walls of the convent. These walls were at least ten feet high with a thick wrought iron gate at the front. I guess I had become institutionalised because I rarely thought about life on the outside and concentrated more on survival where I was. (GS Oakleigh - Sub 423) Food The best that could be said about the food was that it was regular and recurrently basic. Bread and dripping (‘flop’) was our common breakfast with a mug of lukewarm tea. The main meals were routinised: you could tell what day of the week it was by what we were eating. The menu was totally predictable. And there was never enough. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) I have become a vegetarian as a result of often vomiting up meat that was off and we could smell was off before we ate it, but were forced to eat it anyway. (Protestant Federation Home, Dulwich Hill - Sub 311)[212] My first memory of Goodwood is of the food - the lack of it. I can now only recall being hungry all the time. I can remember licking plates but I could not have been much older than 4 or 5. (Goodwood - Sub 419) We were always kept near starvation point at Westbrook. All the best produce that we grew was sent to the markets to be sold. We were left with only the maggoty, the mouldy, the weevilly and the stale. I am not exaggerating. I wish I were. We were not allowed to have butter on our bread (even though we produced our own), while the warders and their families received all the milk, cream and butter they wanted. The animals we raised - mainly cows and pigs - were better fed than us boys. (Sub 141) The freshest part of the food actually moved. (Box Hill - Sub 148)[213] My memories of meal times at the orphanage were all very similar to this - being forced to eat food we did not like, being hit and removed from the table if we objected and being separated from my siblings. (Sandgate - Sub 412) 4.10 Many compared the standard of their food with that which the nuns or other staff were served. I was made to work every morning and evening in the nun's dining room and kitchen...They ate wonderful food; fresh peaches and roast lamb. I had never tasted anything like this before. I used to steal all the scraps and give them to my sister (St Joseph's Lane Cove - Sub 95) The officers did not eat the same food as us. They were seated on a stage looking down at us eating their lovely roast meals, whilst we were eating horrible stews. (Salvation Army, Nedlands - Sub 231) 4.11 Many also reported, especially in Catholic and Salvation Army institutions, that at meal times there was strictly no talking allowed. To talk would result in a strike across the back or head with a cane or other implement. 4.12 With food and diet being basic and insufficient, children learned to scavenge or supplement their diet through other means. While we worked in the garden there was always the chance of a bit extra to eat, and we thought it well worth the risk. We’d break the tops off carrots then put the top back in the ground, after consuming the carrot. Potatoes were eaten raw as well. With them it was just a matter of digging at the side of the plant and pulling out the potato. This was called ‘bandicooting’. (Ballarat Orphanage - Conf Sub 6) There were lots of orchards around the place, so we would raid them when we could. Also used to drink the milk before it went through the separator, and would also swallow raw eggs when I could get hold of them from the chooks. One thing we did learn as kids was to be crafty, that's how we survived. (Parkerville - Conf Sub 44) Clothing All my clothes were hand me downs from the other kids and given out daily from a pile on the table. (Kardinia House - Sub157) We were known as 'home' or 'orphanage kids' just by our clothing - I felt very stigmatised. (Sub 111) Clothing 200 growing children was almost as great a task as feeding them. Uniformity was best, for reasons of economy and practicality. Most of our clothes were hand-me-downs, and like the boots, were expected to last for ever...Saturday mornings we lined up for fresh clothes. Socks and singlets every Saturday; clean pyjamas and shirts every second Saturday; fresh pants once a month...Underpants were unknown until we were at secondary school. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) We were not allowed to wear our shoes and were barefooted the whole time we were there, except when we were in a public place ie, outside the confines of the home. (Salvation Army, Nedlands - Sub 231) 4.13 The non-wearing of shoes was common-place across institutions, with many recollecting the pain of going to and from school in bare feet on gravel roads. The only time many children were allowed to wear shoes was on special outings or if important visitors came. I can remember crying all the way to school in winter as my feet really hurt - chilblains were common - and in summer we would get blisters because the road was so hot. (Sub 181) Personal hygiene I remember while we were there that we only got a bath once a week and that the same bath water was used for all the boys. (Ardill House - Sub 199) At Nazareth House we had a bath once a week, this bathing ritual was performed with me wearing a calico gown so as I wouldn’t look at my body or see my reflection in the water. (Sub 111) Friday night was bath time in the toddlers' block. We soaked ten at a time in a big raised bath. The big girls scrubbed and polished us one by one and pushed us out quickly to make way for the next lot... When we graduated to the big kids' block, we had a shower on Saturday mornings. The system was as efficient as a factory assembly line: six shower outlets to each of five rows, thirty boys at a time. Sixty boys could be done in ten minutes flat. No privacy, no dressing gowns and you shared a towel with the mob. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) To stop us getting tinea (athlete's foot) we had to all wash our feet in a bathtub before we got into the showers, that was exactly the way to spread it and I would (after contracting it a few months after I arrived) spend nights tearing my feet & toes to pieces, they were so raw & bloody at times, I could barely walk on them...(King Edward Newcastle - Sub 351) In the early years we cleaned our teeth with salt rubbed on our fingers. Later, in our teens, we got a toothbrush. Even then, there was no toothpaste. The dentist was called in emergencies only. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) 4.14 Many girls complained of the lack of education when menstruation commenced and described how they had thought there was something terribly wrong with them. Access to sanitary items was heavily controlled - 'when we wanted one we had to ask a staff member and wait til she unlocked the cupboard and gave us one in front of other children' - 'we had to ask the staff (males included) for one pad at a time and it was written in a book'. The humiliation of actually having to show a soiled pad before receiving another was vividly recalled by many care leavers. No allowance was made for girls who had heavy periods - 'for 18 months I had to stuff toilet paper, lots of it down my undies especially at school'. When we had our periods we were given a bag with 6 large pieces of rag in it and with our name on it. Once used we had to scrub these until spotless... (Newtown, Hobart - Sub 208) Depersonalisation and other forms of psychological abuse The whole time I was in the institutions all I wanted to do was not to be seen, I just wanted to disappear so I wouldn't be singled out. 4.15 The impact on an impressionable child of being constantly told they were good for nothing, would amount to nothing, were evil, were the devil's child, were worthless, were scum of the earth and not fit for normal society, were a nobody, were not wanted by their mother or anybody else, were sluts, whores and prostitutes, had come from the gutter and would end in the gutter cannot be overemphasised. It is little wonder that such abuse and negative reinforcement destroyed the self esteem of so many who have remained scarred through their adult lives. All my life, as a child in those dreadful homes I was told I was 'ugly', 'would end up a prostitute' and 'should never have been born'. It took me years of struggle to even realise I was a person... It is only recently I have gained enough confidence to believe I am a decent person and as good as everyone else...we really never knew what we were. (Sub 95) Most of the Christian Brothers made sarcastic remarks to destroy ones innate personality and self worth. The perpetual drive to snuff out the spirit of the individual by inflicting them with senseless brutality and humiliation to conform to the grinding regimented life of the institutions was in the main successful. This would ensure the full potential of many kids in these institutions would be snuffed out. (Sub 365) Because of being constantly told I was nothing & would end up in the gutter & no one wanted me or ever would, the core negative beliefs I have are my reality. They are the deepest most profound assumptions and expectations I have of myself, & therefore I find it hard to function as a 'normal' human being, beyond my frontdoor. This is just the way life is to me now, & these negative core beliefs continue to govern my life & reality. (Sub 124) [The officer] then gave me 4 straps across each hand. He then made me run around a yard 5 times yelling at the top of my voice, very ugly things about myself. I was yelling things such as, I'll never be any good, I'm useless, I'm pathetic, I'm a sook etc... Out of everything I took with me from that place, that has been the one thing that has stopped me on many occasions from getting anywhere in life. (SA Eden Park - Sub 291) 4.16 The loss of childhood, of having what would be regarded as a normal childhood taken away, was poignantly described in many submissions. For many there was no time for childhood play with daily life so structured and regimented. I have come to realise that we were never children. We were an unpaid workforce, with no reward just punishment...At the beginning I said I don't remember being a child, I am saddened that most of the memories of my youth are pretty grim. (Sub 169) Due to the period in the Home I lost my complete childhood. I never knew my Uncles, Aunties, cousins. I have no happy memories of my childhood at all the Salvos robbed me of that (Sub 198) We lived in fear during most of our childhood. And our childhood was stolen from us. (Sub 266) Lack of love and affection 4.17 The most fundamental need for the emotional development of a young child is to be shown love and affection, to be nurtured and wanted. The lack of these essential human qualities was pervasive in institutions and was commented upon or referred to in literally every submission and story. Growing up and developing as a person without receiving love and affection has possibly been the single most influential and tragic legacy of life in institutional care for every care leaver. I feel like I grew up as a worm, as I felt I was beneath everybody. (Sub 367) I was never shown any love at all you were just a number to them not even a name. (SA Kent Town - Sub 198) We had no nurturing, no love, no hugs, no kisses all necessary in ones upbringing, it was nearly 45 years before we could hug each other when we met and talk openly about what we had been through. A lot of Hopewoods are still mixed up and still having problems and no one to turn to. For a lot there are still no answers. (Hopewood - Sub 93) I was trying to get some caring or love from anyone. I remember talking to the laundry lady and trying to get some caring from her but it seemed that all the adults in the place were totally cold to the children. (Royleston - Sub 150) My biggest complaint is that I was never offered or given anything that even vaguely resembled nurturing. No affirmation of the person I was becoming, no encouragement, no warmth, and absolutely no affection, not under any circumstances... The Manager lived upstairs with his family, providing all 16 residents with a tantalising but extraordinarily painful glimpse of the loving family life we so desired... He and his family made absolutely certain that we all knew our station in life, and reinforced our collective worthlessness. (Raith - Sub 28) The emotional abuse I received was demeaning and humiliating, it undermined my confidence and self-worth. The continual taunting of being told that I was nothing and would amount to nothing, that I was stupid and that I would be just like my mother who came from the gutter. (St Catherine's - Sub 111) The special training I was to receive at Brougham was designed to make me believe I was unloved and unlovable, unwanted, worthless and a burden on society who would never amount to anything. Many of these thoughts I still carry. (Brougham - Sub 20) The most difficult part of all this is the fact that you had no one to turn to for some form of comfort. You just bury it, no way to deal with it... You'd learn to hide emotions in this place, because you might get strapped for it as I did. (SA Eden Park - Sub 291) There was no one to trust, to confide in, to cuddle, to read us bedtime stories. No one gave us an affectionate 'goodnight' or stopped for a chat. And yet all the while I ached with a question that would not go away. What can be so wrong with our parents that makes it better to be brought up by such cruel and uncaring people as this? (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) 4.18 In all institutions over all periods of time, the lack of love was a fundamental constant. Stories emerged that in some instances there were different levels of treatment in care over different eras at the same Home. Even in those few submissions that had positive comments about childhood experiences in care there were still comments about the lack of love and warm human emotion. Suppression of identity and individuality 4.19 It was common practice in many institutions to give each child an identification number which they kept throughout their time at that particular place. 'No one was referred to by name - usually it was "you" or your number was called out'. It was here in Parkside I was given the name "NUMBER FIVE". The number you are given is what you answer to, it is sewn on all your clothes, it is your locker number and your bed and cell number. I ceased being Alan and became number five. (Sub 278) 4.20 The impact this had on individual identity could be seen by the number of care leavers who remembered their number or signed off their submission so many years later with the inclusion of their identity number.[214] 4.21 If calling a child by a number is not dehumanising enough, the lack of recognition and celebration of birthdays is the ultimate suppression of identity. I never had a birthday party or cake. (St Catherine's, Brooklyn - Sub 8) there were so many children the Orphanage did not celebrate birthdays. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) No Birthday parties, no presents no kindness, just fear and regimentation to keep us in line. (Murray Dwyer - Sub 364) 4.22 The lack of recognition of celebratory days including birthdays, Christmas, Mother's and Father's day has had a profound impact on future life, especially for the partners and children of care leavers. Many people have grown up without feeling for these family days and they now pass with little or no recognition. The absolute sadness I still have is the loss of family, never receiving or giving presents, having birthdays and all that family stuff. That is all I ever wanted. (Sub 181) 4.23 Other care leavers said that their name had been changed while in institutions, which they did not discover until many years later when searching for records. One person recalled having her name changed because they already had a child with the same name in the Home. I can still remember standing with my Father, Gracie [stepmother] and Matron Gennon. 'We already have a Shirley here. What are we going to call her?' Gennon asked. 'What about Lurline then?' answered Gracie, and that was that! (WR Black - Sub 409) 4.24 Changing a child's religion or forcing them to attend services of a different religion to that which they were baptised both between catholic and protestant and between protestant faiths was also reported in some stories. we discovered a record on microfilm that I had indeed been baptised as a Church of England in 1937. Although Child Welfare Department Records of my detention...records my religion as being a Presbyterian. I believe that something as important as changing my religion while in the care of the Child Welfare Department should have consulted my father for his approval for such an important decision. (Sub 319) 4.25 A particularly effective form of depersonalisation was the total regimentation of everyday life - the ultimate suppression of any individuality in a child. Many submissions, particularly those from people who had been in Salvation Army homes, describe a spartan existence where the whole day was governed by bells - 'bells to get up, bells for school, bells for each meal' - or whistle blows and having to march to all activities including meals, showers, school. 4.26 A common theme was not just the separation of children by gender into separate homes or for all daily activities but the constant reinforcement of differences. This inability to relate and interact with the opposite sex as a child has been at the base of many relationship difficulties in adult life, as discussed in the next chapter. Staff at both homes discouraged boys from having anything to do with the opposite sex, boys were brainwashed that talking about girls was filthy and were punished if they were heard by an officer... I now believe this is why I seem to have trouble starting a relationship with the opposite sex. (Salvation Army Riverview and Indooroopilly - Sub 90) Lack of privacy 4.27 The absolute lack of privacy in showers and toilets was frequently raised, especially the embarrassment of being constantly watched and taunted by carers, often of the opposite gender and during adolescent years. The shower cubical consisted of half doors where an officer would be continually watching you; again you were given no privacy. (Ormond) These showers were on a wall and open for everyone lined up to see there was no privacy at all, it was embarrassing (Kent Town) The toilets had no doors either, and I found this aspect of life at Parramatta most upsetting, particularly during menstruation. This might be difficult for men to comprehend, but a woman likes her privacy in the toilet. Visits by family members 4.28 Having parents or family members visit was a keenly anticipated occasion, although highly regulated in many institutions. Stories were told of children getting dressed up on visitors' days, more out of hope than expectation that they would receive a visitor in many cases, only to be let down. This had a shattering psychological affect, reinforcing feelings of abandonment and not being wanted. The situation was equally so for those not expecting visitors. Visitor's days were traumatic for children who had no parents or for those not receiving visitors that day, no counsel or support was provided to children who experienced abandonment every visitors Sunday. (Goodwood - Sub 89) The emotional harm was much worse, visiting day once a month, sitting and waiting all together in the sewing room, listening to the noise on the driveway outside the window, hoping someone would visit me. Sitting there all alone pretending it didn't matter that no one came to see me, this was a common occurrence. (Lynwood Hall - Sub 407) On my arrival at the home [Gill] I was informed by the management that my boys were unavailable to me that weekend due to as the Salvation Army officer explained, that their refusal to grant me access to my children on this weekend was that it was the wrong weekend on which they accepted children in their care to be taken out of the home by parents or family members. I was unaware of these rules being explained to me, rules that did not allow parents or other family members to take out their children, on some weekends but not others. I was not allowed to take my sons out that weekend or allowed to see them. I returned to Moss Vale. (Sub 317) Forms of Punishment 4.29 Children were punished for a wide range and often the most trivial of reasons. Talking during meal times, if somebody laughed or giggled out of place, not standing still when spoken to, answering back, getting answers wrong in class or being left-handed, playing out of bounds and not doing daily chores properly or to a supervisor's satisfaction were commonly mentioned behaviours that often resulted in severe punishment. Punishments ranged from beatings with straps, canes, cricket bats, bunches of keys; being forced to perform additional and often repetitive tasks; withdrawal of privileges such as watching television or being allowed visits; food rationing; forced immobility for long periods; isolation and humiliation. Punishment, we were caned with cricket stump...If you spoke out you were caned. If you let your hair grow and a nun didn't like it, she would make you have it cut like a boy, as well as cane you. No one had long hair. (Nazareth house, Camberwell - Sub 169)[215] ...the superintendent at that time ran her school for girls like some sort of Nazi officer making us scrub and polish floors for hours on our hands and knees for being disobedient which might I add was for minor things such as loosing your hair brush, talking when you were not supposed to be talking, answering back etc. (Lynwood Hall - Sub 272) Punishment could mean extra duties, a good talking to, withdrawal of privileges, or if the Superintendent was involved you could be in for a good beating especially if he lost his temper. (Dalmar - Sub 136) Every day from 6am when [the nun in charge] would sort out the girls who wet their bed...to belting girls who's bed was not up to scratch, shoes not shined enough, chores not perfect, lockers untidy, going too fast or too slow, talking. It seems she would find fault just because we were there. She hated us. (Goodwood - Sub 406) At Ormond the punishment there for being disobedient, such as talking when you weren’t supposed to consisted of scrubbing cement courtyards on your hands and knees with a tooth brush (I have always been curious, with the amount of girls scrubbing courtyards with toothbrushes why the department never wondered why so many were needed). (Ormond - Sub 272)[216] I loved to climb trees and walk along the fence tops. For this I was caned. The joy of climbing the trees outweighed the pain of the caning. (Burwood -Sub 192) Any glancing sideways or looking up was met with what Ben said was the standard punishment that occurred at Tamworth Boys Home. This was the loss of a meal or the loss of all meals over a period of 24 to 48 hours. The punishment for boys who habitually broke the rule was being made to wear a cardboard cereal box that had two holes cut for eyes. The boy had to keep wearing the box until it fell to pieces. Ben recalls that later a set of leather blinkers was made, similar to those that a horse would use, and the boy had to wear these for a set number of days. (Tamworth Boys Home - Sub 329) The punishment inflicted was to have her hair shaved off, and she [a young girl of 7 or 8] was compelled to wear a sugar bag as a dress all day for a period of time...she even wore it to school, which was a public school some distance from the institution, and the children had to walk along public streets to get to this school. It would be difficult to imagine the trauma, that this child was compelled to suffer, or the effect it would have had on her in later life. (Swan Homes - Sub 414) 4.30 A particular punishment practiced at many institutions was not to simply withdraw privileges from the individual child, but from all the children. This would make the individual highly unpopular resulting in ostracism or beatings from his or her peers. Another form of punishment commonly referred to was hours of bed drill consisting of stripping the bed of each sheet and blanket and remaking it with 'envelope corners and no wrinkles' and repeating the procedure over a period of many hours. 4.31 A form of punishment practiced in some institutions was to force younger boys to have fist fights or boxing matches with older and stronger boys, thereby enlisting older boys to inflict the punishment. Holding mismatched boxing bouts was also seen as 'entertainment' for the staff at some institutions. 4.32 The handing out of punishment was also seen as a method of controlling the children. Those children perceived as leaders or simply highly respected by their peers would be 'targeted' and regularly punished so as to serve as an example to the others. Bedwetting 4.33 The overwhelming number of submissions that referred to punishments for bedwetting indicates the traumas this condition engendered. Bedwetting is commonly a sign of a distressed child. Yet the greater the incidence of bedwetting the greater the incidence of abuse and trauma the child was subjected to. A variety of punishments were inflicted including beatings, cold showers in winter (often combined with a beating) and a range of humiliations so traumatic and severe to a young child that the condition was exacerbated. As I was a bed-wetter, I used to be belted daily. They used to throw me under a cold shower then belt me really hard with a large strap while I was wet. This was extremely painful - especially in winter - and left big red marks on my body. They also used to rub my face in the wet sheets and then my brother had to wash them. (Parkerville - Sub 181)[217] The bedwetters received such humiliation, they would have to parade around the room with their wet smelly sheets draped over their shoulders. (St Catherine's, Geelong - Sub 111)[218] If you wet the bed, you were made to wear a potty strapped around you rear end all day - thus dis-allowing you to sit for meals and become the brunt of much humour. (Parkville - Sub 379) If any boy wet his bed, he would be ridiculed in front of everyone, and at times be dressed as a girl. (St Joseph's, Kincumber - Sub 364) They used to grab us and put nappies on us and then send us off to school. The school was on the premises...I'd have been eight or nine at the time. (Salvation Army, Box Hill - Sub 296) 4.34 It never seems to have been considered that the problem may lie in a range of other reasons such as the child being stressed due to separation from a comforting and loving home environment with parents and family or that they were now living in a state of constant fear. 4.35 As a preventative measure in some institutions drinking was forbidden well before bedtime. This was especially harsh in Queensland. I have memories of being hungry. But the worst was being thirsty in the summer not allowed to have water long before bedtime. (Riverview - Sub 339) The master made us or you could say let us have no water after 2pm so that you would not wet your bed. (Brougham - Sub 333) 4.36 More bizarre preventative measures were tried. If you wet the bed more than once a week, you got a machine put under your bed, it gave you a shock, you flew out of bed to go to the toilet. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 103) Isolation, including locking in cupboards and cells [Lynwood Hall] also had an isolation room which apparently the Child Welfare Department was aware of. The room consisted of a mattress on the floor, a metal potty, a window that was boarded up from the outside and a small opening in the bottom of the door where meals were passed through three times a day, the light switch was on the outside of the room. I spent many 24hour periods locked in isolation at the age of twelve to sit and stare at a wall. (Lynwood Hall - Sub 272). We were often locked in a dark room for hours, mice were running around our feet. We would miss meals. It was very scarey. (WR Black - Sub 101) [The Superintendent] would lock her under the staircase in a narrow dark room, and leave her there for ages, all day and even over-night. She was left there until she was either prepared to apologise or own up to something she didn’t do or say what he wanted her to say. (Dalmar - Sub 203)[219] I was taken down to the dungeon under the home where there is no windows just the dungeon and told by the sisters the Devil is going to come and punish me. She then closed the door it was pitch black I could not see my hand in front of me I was very frightened as I was waiting for the Devil to come. (St Joseph's, Largs Bay - Sub 106) 4.37 The 'Training Schools' had their own isolation cells. I couldn’t handle being placed in isolation, this was a building away from main building constructed in concrete with 4 or 6 cells...Isolation cell punishment had 2 time zones, 24 hours or 48 hours, the 24 hours you were given bread and water three times a day and a mattress at night to sleep on the floor with 1 blanket, (I still remember the cold and my house as we speak has cupboards full of beautiful wool blankets). I didn’t experience the 48 hour number but I believe after 24 hours, you received food... REMEMBER, WE WERE CHILDREN IN THIS COLD DARK LONELY PLACE. (Parramatta Girls Training School - Sub 299)[220] 4.38 The Committee was provided with extracts from the punishment book from Karrala House which records children being locked up in solitary for periods of 30, 40 and 60 days during the mid 1960s. Lengthy periods of isolation, which breached provisions of child welfare legislation, were common in many other institutions. 4.39 In a bizarre twist, isolation could be sought as an escape from the trauma of daily life. The inmates formed groups with a leader and younger inmates were required to obey the group. Failure to obey resulted in being bashed which occurred frequently...There were frequent riots by the inmates and invariably everybody was punished including me although I took no part. Punishments included being thrown fully clothed under a cold shower and locked in my room... To me the only safe place in the home was "the cabin", a room used as punishment by solitary confinement. To be put in the cabin it was necessary to have committed some misdemeanour, which I would deliberately do. (Vaughan House, Adelaide - Sub 273) Standing on spot for hours The matron made the children stand for hours with their arms stretched up high above their heads. When our arms fell we were beaten. If this happened in a war prisoners camp it would be called torture by the international community. (WR Black - Sub 87) There were many other humiliations too numerous to mention...standing for hours on end facing a wall for talking out of line. (Parramatta - Sub 284) The form of punishment would be standing in line for hours on end without movement and if a boy fainted, he was left lying there until he recovered and resumed his place in the line... A more severe variant to this of standing in line was that the boys had to stand up on the sitting benches, which were around the walls of the playroom, and face the wall and press the nose against the wall. Any boy who took his nose off the wall would have his face pushed into the wall by the officer. (SA Gill - Sub 282) The white line was the worst punishment... We were required to stand to attention, without bending the knees. No one was allowed to talk to or look at a child on the white line because those children were "a disgrace," to the nuns. No-one wanted to be friends with anyone who had been sent to the white line. Those children were isolated and vilified by the other terrified children. (Goodwood - Sub 419) Secondary abuse 4.40 Many people referred in submissions to their abuse in institutions as a form of secondary or systemic abuse. Children were taken from their parents who it was claimed could not adequately support or maintain them. The implication was that 'welfare' would be able to provide the care and opportunity that the parents were unable to provide. How then could it be that for many of these children the abuse perpetrated upon them whilst in care in the institutions was far greater than that committed by their parents? To many this is seen as a failure of 'government' to monitor their needs and well-being during the time they were in care. 4.41 Another form of secondary abuse has been the treatment of these children as adults over a range of issues from the attitudes of supposed support people and counsellors, the lack of programs and services, to the barriers encountered in trying to obtain records and information about their families and childhood. The reason we have suffered this lack of programs and effort is that the agencies responsible for creating our problems in the first place have sought to hide that fact. They have done that by denying our experiences as children and our existence as adults.[221] Discipline and physical assault 4.42 Many of the severe beatings handed out as punishment went way beyond the sort of corporal punishment which was acceptable at the time. They often took the form of extremely severe physical violence - what can only be described as criminal assault. He would hit you with a stock whip if he caught you talking during milking...he [also] had a leather strap, which appeared to be from the stirrup of a saddle. The strap would be approximately quarter of an inch thick one to one and quarter inches wide and about twelve to eighteen inches long, this would be used to hit and flog boys with. Our nickname for this was the "horse harness". (Riverview - Sub 90) This man seemed to take great pleasure in humiliating us publicly, flogging us with his heavy leather belt while we knelt naked at his feet. You could receive anything up to 60 lashes and you always ended up bleeding profusely. Sometimes boys lost consciousness. They were the lucky ones. (Westbrook - Sub 141) We were then belted on a regular basis by the warders...They were savage beatings. Boots and all. Time and time again. They would get you when you were laying in your bed. Come in, grab you, get you on the floor and kick and beat you till you were badly hurt. It was a nightmare. I often wished I were dead. This happened so often it was frightening thinking about when would be the next time. (Bayswater - Sub 148) Four kids would hold the offender down and a nun would hit the bare buttocks with a leather belt, anything up to six times. Once I was hit so hard I could not sit down for two days. (Murray Dwyer - Sub 364) I had my hands held behind my back, hair held and my head bashed into a lot of sinks in the shower block and lost quite a few teeth. (Parramatta - Sub 280) She'd thrash and thrash looking coldly into your eyes, I could see the hate in her face. Her face would go red the white mantle around her face would get tighter and her face would puff up. I would see how determined and mean and cruel she could be. (Goodwood - Sub 89) She did not give me a reason for what was about to happen, I was forced to pull up my dress exposing my bare back from my shoulders to my waist. She then struck me anywhere between 10 and 15 times across my waist, very forcefully with the strap. The strap itself was square, thin and very long much like a horse whip. Because of its length, they used to double it, so in effect you were getting a double dose. The force of the blows caused my back to go black in colour. We used to change in front of the other children in the dormitory, but I was so ashamed because of my back, I used to change away from the other children. (Nazareth House, Wynnum - Sub 237) Matron was an extremely cruel woman, she would hit us with the copper stick, chair or whatever she could pick up at her time of rage. (WR Black - Sub 101) Absconding 4.43 Absconding was a widely reported practice. Punishment took many severe forms, though one of the most common was being beaten in front of the other children or even by the children. if any girls ran away, when they were caught they were publicly flogged. Us girls used to have tears in our eyes watching this, but we couldn’t do anything. (St Joseph's Subiaco - Sub 172) ...you knew who ran away because when you got up the next day, the boy was standing in the 'quad' with his hands on his head. The punishment for this was not carried out until that night when he was caned on the hands in full view of the rest of us. If you pulled your hand away you were then whacked on the legs. (Salvation Army, Nedlands - Sub 231) Whilst at Riverview I witnessed two boys flogged. For running away, they used a thick leather strap across their backs. (Riverview - Sub 339) We were all assembled in the gymnasium where we were told to form up in a line in the shape of a horseshoe, the three boys being punished [for absconding] were instructed to remove their clothing...each of the boys was then told to get on to his hands and knees and they had to scuttle across the floor in this fashion to where the line began, as they did this they were lashed with a rattan cane across their buttocks, as they reached the start of the line they had to crawl between the legs of the other boys and were unmercifully bashed and kicked...When they reached the end of the line they had to remain on their hands and knees and were flogged back to the start. (Swan Homes - Sub 414) 4.44 Many absconders were locked in cellars or rooms for many days and with minimal or no food. Regular offenders would be sent to the harsher, more secure training schools such as Parramatta or Mt Penang in NSW. 4.45 Nobody bothered to inquire why children continually ran away. Those who reported abuse as a reason for absconding, especially to police, were simply not believed and returned to the institution - usually to be summarily punished. I was a persistent runaway - nowhere to go, no one to see but I would runaway just the same. I now know the sadness and devastation I felt but no one in the Department ever seemed to notice. (Sub 344) Even after repeated 'running away' episodes by many of their [Child Welfare Department] wards, they never once asked the simplest question 'WHY'. Nor for that matter did police officers. In my own case, with five boys 'on the run' and being described on local radio as 'armed and dangerous' was that simple question raised. NO! (Sub 11) Sexual assault While at Bayswater I was abused sexually by an officer, and thought by now this was the normal thing for us boys to endure. (Sub 278) The night times were hard on us as the brothers would come in and have their ways with us. There were other kids besides us all getting the same things done to them. We just didn’t know when it was our turn to be raped, so that’s why I still cannot live with the nights. (St Joseph's - Sub 371) I can’t get some of the terrible things he did to me out of my head, they loom in the shadows of my life and haunt me. This man took my virginity, my innocence, my development, my potential (Sub 239) All the time while the priest was assaulting me (or other children) the sister would stand at the door looking the other way. If another sister came she would flash her torch on the ground and the priest would stand behind the partition until the sister flashed her torch again. After this he would resume his abuse. I don’t know how often this occurred but would estimate that the priest came 3 - 4 nights per week and would assault several children on the one night. I was raped on a regular basis. The older children were picked more often than the younger ones. (Sandgate - Sub 412) 4.46 Submissions and evidence to the Committee provided many accounts of extremely graphic and disturbing descriptions of sexual abuse and assault on girls and boys by a wide range of perpetrators. Sexual abuse was widespread with reports covering all States and type of institution - government and non-government, and between religions and in foster care. Care leavers retold being sexually abused or assaulted as very young children and through their teenage years. Stories were received of males assaulting males and females, and also of females assaulting females and younger males. Mostly the predators were staff members, including religious and lay, or adult workers. 4.47 However, some submissions recorded sexual assaults by the older children as well as by staff. The activities of older children were undertaken with the staff simply turning a blind eye. Most of the time I couldn't sleep, it wasn't possible to shower either. In time I lost the count of the times I was sexually assaulted in the showers. The place was sickening the cruelty and violence coming from both the older boys and the guards. (Westbrook - Sub 217) 4.48 A number of patterns emerge from the descriptions of those sexually assaulted of the predatory behaviour of the perpetrator. The child's confidence is gained through kind words and actions - 'I thought I had a friend, and as I had never been shown affection by another human being that I could remember, I welcomed it'. Bribes of lollies, biscuits, cigarettes and alcohol were often used. 4.49 Some care leavers indicated paedophiles targeted children who did not receive visitors. One care leaver, speaking from personal experience of the Salvation Army's Box Hill orphanage, confirms that paedophiles singled out 'the ones they know never get visits because they know that the other kids will talk to their parents and that sort of thing'.[222] 4.50 Those desiring sexual favours also applied psychological pressure in the form of withdrawal of privileges, the removal and destruction of personal belongings. The threat and carrying out of physical beatings if the sexual assault was mentioned to other people was a common practice. 4.51 The social arrangements existing in some institutions were favourable for predatory behaviour. I slept in a dormitory with thirty or more other girls. We were locked in of a night with a guard outside our door. There were night watchmen who would give cigarettes to girls for sexual favours. The place we were placed in for protection was the most dangerous for any young girl with young male security officers taking advantage of these girls. (Bidura - Sub 271) 4.52 The Committee referred in its report on child migration to the accounts of systemic criminal sexual assault and predatory behaviour by a large number of Brothers over a considerable period of time at the Christian Brothers institutions Bindoon, Castledare, Clontarf and Tardun in Western Australia.[223] The Committee received a number of submissions from men who had been in these institutions, and who were not child migrants, describing similar assaults being perpetrated against them. As one wrote 'the Brothers did not distinguish between types'. The operation of these institutions and the impact that it has had on the lives of so many was graphically described: The Brothers were unusually adept at turning loose upon society a huge number of social misfits, low in self esteem and life knowledge (except of the perverse kind), who would pay society in criminal and anti-social behaviour over many years. I personally met plenty of them in various prisons (known individually to me), observed a number in mental institutions, and knew of the attempted and successful suicides of others (including a brother of mine). Their commitment to ‘save souls’ was bastardised into a system whereby they ‘stole our souls’; whereby they made us into mere ciphers, to be seized and used whenever the need for sexual gratification was upon them. We meant no more to them than the moment’s pleasure. These institutions were totally devoid of love, had little compassion, and very little understanding of the needs of young boys. True, a few Brothers had all these attributes, and some boys experienced them. I believe them to be in the minority. These were punishment regimes.[224] Separation of families 4.53 One of the most forceful issues that became apparent through this inquiry was the destruction of families that occurred through the institutionalisation of children. As described in an earlier chapter, children were placed in care for a number of reasons. The vast majority came from large families. Families would be split with children sent to different institutions. Many would not see their parents again and with minimal or no effort made to keep siblings informed of each others whereabouts, let alone arrange meetings, families inevitably drifted apart, often permanently. I never ever had the opportunity to say goodbye to either of my parents. They were taken out of my life & circumstances never returned them. (Sub 341) ...not to have seen my mother again after we were taken away and not to have been able to find my brothers has been quite traumatic for me, especially when I got a little information so late in life only to be slapped down again when I found that both my brothers and my mother had all died (Sub 184) Our entire family was ripped apart and we can never get back together. They split me away from my 1-week-old brother and we never knew each other until we were old. I had cousins in St. Aidans and the nuns never told me. I never knew my family. How can you get back together when you don’t know each other? (Sub 264, p.4) 4.54 Some care leavers have discovered from records that extended family members offered to provide a home for the child to prevent the child from going into care or after having been in care, yet these offers were usually denied by the department or agency. 4.55 Access visits by parents or grandparents were often denied due to apparently subjective decisions of departmental officers and as a form of punishment for a child's behaviour or their parent falling behind in fee payments. As CLAN noted family visits to children were regarded as a privilege to be withdrawn, rather than a right. Little effort was made to encourage or facilitate the maintenance of connection with parents or family. I was very angry to read all through my earlier files how my mother and maternal and paternal grandmothers all tried for access visits. They were denied each time as my mother was deemed to have fallen from grace...My father although separated from his wife was also denied access. If only I could have met them I would at least have had a mental picture to remember of them. (Sub 263) What I don't understand is why the Dept. deemed it necessary to deny me any contact with any member of my family. When I read my file my sister & my parents had written asking for contact with me on several occasions. (Sub 258, p.4) I would witness many tears shed by my mother after coming out of the Superintendent’s office, several times being denied access to us children and being turned away from our fortnightly visits because she was unable to pay. (Dalmar - Sub 136) 4.56 The worst scenarios for young children were being told lies about the alleged death of parents and siblings, of not being told when a parent had died or being told embellished horror stories. For some the truth would not be discovered until many years later. Imagine being told that at the age of five years old that your mother is dead only to find out six years later that she is alive & well and wants to come & visit you. (Sub 111) It was during my early primary school days when I was told either by my foster parents or by an employee of the Department that my parents and siblings were dead, having been killed in a car accident. I have since learned from my records that my mother and father and brother had written to me however I did not receive any of these letters nor were I told of their existence...Since I learned of the existence of my family I have been in a state of trauma, anxiety, anger and suffering from major stresses related to the knowledge that I have been lied to for the past 35 years (Sub 142) [At age 11 the House Parent] told me my father had hanged himself...that his head had swollen to five times its normal size and would also have been black...He told me that my father had died in a room above a pub and that I would turn out just like him, an alcoholic who killed himself...I was twenty-eight when I learned that my father suicided at the swimming pool (Sub 246) As a child I was always told that my parents had been killed in a car accident, only to discover at the age of 40, my mother and other relatives, a result stemming from personal research. There has been little contact since. (Sub 401) ...being told that his family were dead or injured was one of the many dark and dreadful ways in which the boys of Tamworth were treated. (Sub 329) Separation of siblings 4.57 Relationships Australia referred to studies showing that children and young people living in care have a higher prevalence than other groups of children of physical, developmental and behavioural problems remaining over time, and that siblings who were separated when in the care system have been found to be at increased risk of poorer outcomes.[225] The Committee received many stories from care leavers showing that separation of siblings was a common practice with many reporting a sense of loss and sadness often having difficulties at reconnecting and sustaining family networks. The staff saw no reason to treat brothers and sisters as part of a family. Instead, children were separated into age groups and some siblings were even sent to different orphanages depending on what room was available here, there and elsewhere. (Sub 18) I had four brothers and three sisters; I was nine years old and the eldest. I and a few of my siblings were taken to Bidura Children’s Depot at Glebe whilst two of my brothers were taken to Royleston Boys Depot...(How could any child taken from the only family she knows and not understanding what is happening be anything but scared, being the eldest it automatically comes to you to be the one to look out for the younger ones which I was not able to do reinforcing my feelings of being a failure.) I remained in Bidura Children’s Depot for several months during which time I watched as my brothers and sisters were taken away. I didn’t get to see any of them again until many years later. (Sub 272) This home was in Newcastle so it was impossible for me to see my sisters as they were in Sydney. The Dept never made any effort to keep the bonds between siblings alive. (Sub 351, p.19) I used to see [my brother] every Sunday because we went to the same church. We could only wave to each other because we weren't allowed to speak. It was shocking, I remember thinking why can't I talk to my brother? (Sub 185) Forced adoption of babies 4.58 Many submissions were received that provided stories of teenage girls falling pregnant and having their child removed at birth and adopted even though they desperately wished to keep their baby. This situation happened not just to girls living in-care but to single working girls who would be placed in an institution and expected to work for their 'board' during the term of the pregnancy. I went [to the Sisters of St Joseph's, Fullarton] because institutionalisation was what was familiar to me and I was afraid and confused. We worked in laundry for long hours of the day, and also paid a major part of our Social security benefits to the nuns for board and keep. I now suspect they made a lot of money put of us. We were encouraged by the nuns to adopt our babies out. (Sub 89) Apart from working all day in the laundry the days were made even longer by being woken up at 5 in the morning to go to mass most days of the week. The long hours working with no rest through the day made me very tired and depressed. (Holy Cross Wooloowin - Sub 221) 4.59 The removal of the baby and offering for adoption was often undertaken by duress or in some instances deception. Alternative options to keep the baby and legal rights were not explained. It was a given that you had to give up your child for adoption to stay in the home [Alexandra Home, Highgate]. [The Matron] made it clear that my baby was not MY BABY - there was no way I was going to keep "it", if I wanted to stay in the home. I had nowhere else to go...There was no privacy in the home only in the bathroom, as we all slept in a dormitory and worked in the kitchen and laundry...Neither 'they'; the 'Welfare', nor any social worker came near me, let alone explain any of the options available. e.g. a special payment from the government for a female to stay at home and look after a relative, the layette, the food assistance, baby bonus and child allowance and / or an additional benefit. Not wealth by any means, but at least a chance for us to get on our feet and stay together. (Sub 97) She cruelly promoted adoption above my rights to know of alternative options to keep my own child. I was not informed of the Social Welfare benefits that were available to me at that time...I was not even told that I did not have to sign a consent form...I remember being made to sit at the desk, I was sobbing and yelling for my baby and all I got was this nun pushing papers under my face and telling me to sign here, here and here. (Sub 104) I still had not been shown my baby and on the 8th day a woman from the department came and threatened and coerced me into signing the adoption papers for my son. (Sub 221) We were submitted into signing Papers, which I found out later, they were adoption papers. We thought we were signing Registration Papers. The nuns forced us into signing, and had their hands over the word adoption, and I will never forget that at all. (Conf Sub 58) 4.60 While the treatment and care of girls in institutions who became pregnant and those who were placed in institutions after falling pregnant are relevant to this inquiry, there is a much wider issue of past adoption practices when babies were routinely taken from young unmarried mothers. When allegations are made that social workers of that time used 'unethical, emotional blackmail and inhuman practices to illegally gain consent forms' and efforts to obtain hospital medical and social worker/almoner's records, at least in Victoria, are denied,[226] there needs to be inquiries at the State level to uncover the truth surrounding past adoption practices. 4.61 The Committee notes that the Victorian Government pledged at the previous election to hold an inquiry into past adoption practices and that a recent decision of the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal has ordered the disclosure of a number of documents relevant to this subject.[227] Lack of education Education in the homes was abysmal; when I entered the state school system I was so far behind my age group I was ridiculed and taunted by both teachers and fellow students; leaving me feeling different, dumb and excluded. I have carried those feelings through most of my adult life. (Sub 321) I left Hillside uneducated and illiterate. I had few social skills, and felt I was a social misfit. (Sub 260) 4.62 One of the saddest indicators on the lack of education provided can be seen in the content and style of many of the personal submissions received by the Committee. While short on literacy, the emotional strength and honesty of these submissions shines through. Many submissions were dictated to partners or other supportive people. I am not able to write this submission myself, because during my time in the state care they never gave me an education and as a result of that I can't read or write but I can put my story across verbally, to my partner, who is writing this for me. (Sub 217) They never taught me much, they reckoned I was too slow at everything. I taught myself to read and write at 23 years old age...Even my submission today, I am talking to my sister and she is writing it on the computer for me, as I am not writing it as I can’t spell. (Sub 283) One thing, I was in the boys home in Box Hill from the age of 10 to 15, could you tell me why I am trying to sit at the kitchen table telling my wife these things to write down for me, because I am illiterate? (Conf Sub 132) 4.63 Schooling was usually undertaken at the institution under a variety of arrangements. In State institutions teaching would be undertaken by staff from the education department, the Catholics used nuns or brothers from the order assisted by lay teachers while other non-government groups used outside teachers or sent children to local schools. We attended school on the grounds two days a week. I have no recollection as to what the lessons consisted of. The other three days were a day in the laundry, a day in the kitchen and a day mending and sewing. The girls that were in Lynwood Hall at that time maintained the institution. There was never any recreational time given. (Lynwood Hall - Sub 272) I now know why my education was lost, because of a night time I was bashed, raped and molested, then stay awake all night wondering if they were going to come back. Then be bashed by the nuns at school for falling asleep in class, so I guess that’s why I can't spell today. (St Joseph's - Sub 371) The large number of kids who left these institutions unable to read and write is testimony to the crude and brutal methods used by a supposed teaching Order, the Christian Brothers. It also points to a complete dereliction of duty of care by the Child Welfare authorities. They should have been involved and provided remedial help for those struggling with their education in a climate of fear. (Sub 365) 4.64 Many of those who attended outside schools reported that school was just a waste of time. Often so tired from early morning work and lack of nutrition the children would be too tired to learn and would consequently be punished. By wearing home clothes and not having the books of other children, their difference was reinforced by being treated differently in school and being teased and humiliated by the other children. Teachers were also responsible for reinforcing stereotypes. We went out to public schools, the torment and ridicule of other students who weren't in the home made it difficult to learn as we were branded 'homies'. (Sub 279) We then marched to school in a group dressed in grey shorts and shirt supplied by the Salvos...Other kids at the school used to call us Homies and pick fights with us; at the time the teachers did not worry about it. I can not recall a teacher ever being nice to me. I feel we were treated at school different from the other children. (SA Kent Town - Sub 198) I went to the local (I’m not sure which) school and were made to feel like the dregs of society. The teacher would refer to us as 'the home kids' or simply as 'homies'. I hated being so different to other kids (Sub 412) I felt victimised at school and used to get the cuts a lot for getting sums wrong. I found it hard to learn and just remember trying so hard to be quiet and ‘invisible’ so that I wouldn’t get into trouble. I gained nothing from my schooling. (Parkerville - Sub 181) 4.65 Educational achievement did not have a high profile in most institutions. In many instances children were being prepared for work in domestic service or as farm hands so that a 'practical' education was deemed more important than 'formal' education. This usually saw the child removed from school by 14, though many reported being taken out of school at an earlier age to work on the farm or in commercial laundries. Unmet health needs 4.66 The Committee heard many stories of minimal medical attention received as children, and the often lack of or late treatment of injury and illness for which many care leavers have suffered long-term complications. Dental health was also poor with again stories of long term dental and oral health problems. Many children grew up believing large doses of Epsom salts cured everything! I knew not to get sick if I could help it, because if you did, you were left in the dormitory, alone, no food, no medicine, nothing, just like you learnt to put up with trying to keep warm in freezing winters in shorts, shirts and bare feet, your arms and legs cracked and bleeding from the cold, pain every time you move and nothing you could do about it. (Neerkol - Sub 217) I suffered so many severe attacks of tonsillitis throughout my childhood that were left untreated by the time I was 17 they had to be gouged out they were so rotten...it was not the Welfare Dept that looked after me, it was the couple I worked for...There is not one account in my file of having tonsillitis even though I would tell whoever I was with at the time my throat was sore...no-one believed me as usual. (Sub 351, p.24) It used to get very cold...I told...I was getting pain in my ankles knees and wrists, they wouldn't believe me and said I was stupid, it was only growing pains. When I couldn't walk and my temperature was 105, they sent me to Royal Perth Hospital in an ambulance. I had acute rheumatic fever and was in Hospital for 6 months. My mitral valve and aortic valve are damaged, and I have to take medicines for the rest of my life. (Padbury - Sub 180) I recall being kicked twice by a dairy cow...no medical treatment was offered on either occasion...The most risky thing I was part of doing was firing up the boiler and cutting up some of the wood at Clontarf where some boys were injured...[Describing the hard labour he said] I remember being hit on the head by a brick (I still carry the scars) no medical treatment was given. (Castledare/Clontarf - Sub 251) 4.67 Hopewood was a unique home established by LO Bailey based on a natural living lifestyle. Children were on a strict vegetarian diet and medical care was unorthodox. LOB was a believer that conventional medicine didn't work. We were not allowed to have any vaccinations for childhood diseases...LOB did not believe in formal medicine but only in natural healing...when we got sick, no matter how bad, we were put on a water diet (no food for 6 or 7 days then fruit juice for three days) and were told the BADNESS (whatever that meant) in us was what was making us sick. (Sub 93) Work and exploitation of children in care 4.68 Some non government institutions appeared to rely upon the labour of children in their care to supplement income. The organisations running these institutions profited from the labour of children through such commercial enterprises as farms or industrial laundries. The profits from such labour were not passed onto the children or their families in the form of wages and were received as an addition to funding. 4.69 It appears that in government institutions children were not put to employment insofar as they were not used to provide free labour through farming or laundry work. However, children in government institutions were often used to perform the day-to-day labour of running the Home by assisting with kitchen, garden or other domestic duties which were a form of free labour. This form of labour was common to all institutions with many descriptions of harsh domestic duties including constant cleaning, scrubbing and polishing floors and furnishings; of scrubbing bathrooms and toilets; cleaning windows; of working in the laundry; of hours spent peeling vegetables and other kitchen duties. 4.70 Many institutions used girls, often as young as 10, as a source of labour in the nurseries caring for, cleaning and changing babies or dressing, bathing and putting to bed younger children. On top of that you could be put in charge of the little ones, such as making sure they were washed put to bed etc, if they did anything wrong you, as well as the children were punished. (Nazareth House, Camberwell - Sub 169) Types of work performed We worked seven days a week arising at 5.45am except on Sunday 6.30am and were expected to start our jobs by 6.15am lights out at 7.30p.m. The entire week was rostered, and every moment of the day accounted for...Rostered jobs over the years ranged from working in the kitchen, laundry, washing wet bed sheets, scrubbing and polishing floors (at 8 years I was using an industrial polisher), washing windows, lighting the furnace for hot water, dusting, serving breakfast or dinner, making school lunches (humiliatingly wrapped in newspaper), bathing children, polishing shoes, collecting pig slops, scraping and washing dishes, polishing silver, cleaning bathrooms, filling coke buckets, getting children ready for school, working in the babies home, setting tables, working in the staff pantry, taking children to school, working in the isolation ward, the list go on and is seemingly endless. I felt like I was serving time in prison. (Dalmar - Sub 136 p.3) Home work at the Orphanage did not mean study and unfinished schoolwork. It was the unpaid labour we were required to do outside school time. The management had good reasons for teaching basic skills outside the schoolroom. Once trained, the older inmates were cheap supplementary labour. The girls were used for child minding, sewing, washing, cooking and cleaning for the younger children and the staff. The boys worked the farm and the vegetable garden, cut wood, swept the outdoors, raked the gravel and washed the staff cars - the traditional gendered tasks. (Ballarat Orphanage - Sub 18) Exploitation of children 4.71 The exploitation of children as 'slave labour' - a term used in many submissions, often at a very young age, was a common means to gain income for the institution. This included working in commercial laundries, on farm plots or in other ventures that would create income for the institution. [I was sent] to Hobart to the Magdalene (Good Shepherd) Laundry. This was an awful place and very strange to me...I was only 8 but had to work every day in the laundry from after breakfast until 5pm with a break for lunch. It was a huge laundry and we used to do the laundry for all the hotels, schools and hospitals in Hobart. I worked in the ironing room, sometimes I would iron but mostly I would fold and damp the laundry reading for the presses. They must have made heaps of money from doing all this laundry...From the ages of 8 to 12 while at the Magdalene Laundry I never had any schooling. On occasion though, we would be taken by an 'auxiliary' for an hour and she would read us a story, that was all. (Sub 182) I was actually taken out of school for good at the age of 13 to work in the laundry and the nursery and from then on my days were hell...The laundry was hard work having to use the big mangles and presses. A lot of us have osteo-arthritis today because of this work. (St Joseph's Subiaco - Sub 172) The home resembled a workhouse, we were made to work every day and all day in dreadful conditions. The home laundered sheets for the local hospital. From early morning to late evening we laundered or ironed dirty soiled hospital sheets. Some of the home girls were intellectually disabled. They were forced to wash soiled sheets in large machines like coppers...The only time we were allowed to break was for meal times...I remember the hunger, the work and the attitude of contempt from the staff. They made us feel worthless...I was 15 years old when I went to the Salvation Army home. We had not committed any crime. But we were locked away like criminals. (SA Hobart - Sub 388) This place had a huge woodheap. The wood was brought in as 8 foot long pine off cuts. An officer would saw the wood on a bench saw to lengths big enough for a fireplace. We had to unload the truck of long lengths and stack them then cart the shorter pieces and either load the truck with them or stack them to be loaded at a later date. The wood was sold in and around Mt Barker as firewood. The woodheap was no easy task, it was hard work [for a 10 year old]. No talking just work. (SA Eden Park - Sub 291) 4.72 It was not just in the institutions that children's labour was exploited. Children who were fostered or boarded out were often used as a domestic workforce. ...I regarded myself as being an unpaid slave as from an early age. I had to do all the housework while my friends were out playing. I felt like a robot and if the tasks I was set were not done properly...my punishment would be the jug cord or feather duster around my legs and backside. (Sub 179) I, myself, was placed with a family, and worked from the age of 14 to 18, for a room and food, but no wages. I worked from seven in the morning until seven at night, 6 days a week. I call this slave labour. (Sub 232) [They were] suppose to be my foster carer but you was there slaves. If they had a party you had to stay up and clean up and be up early and look after there children and keep them quiet till they got up. They used to eat in a nice dining of a silver service then when the food came back to the kitchen that's when I used to eat the left overs. Then clean kitchen scrub the floors...I ran away a few times but she would only come and pick me up and treat me like a dog. (Sub 315) Non payment of wages 4.73 The Committee has described above the exploitation of children in commercial laundries and farms, and that their labour was used for the daily running and upkeep of the institution or foster home. Many who worked during their mid to late teens while still living at an institution reported receiving minimal or no payment when they left care. Whilst working on these farm jobs I received no pocket money, even though I regularly signed the pocket money card, I was under the impression that I was signing for wages that were being paid in to the bank for me. On the 4 occasions I had returned from work I never received any pocket money or wages. (Sub 217) All money that was banked or earned later on other jobs where I was placed by the Department was placed in a account at the department under the name of McCall who was at the time Director and classed as friend of said child. There was a large amount of money involved, and on reaching the age of 21, I approached the department, but was told there was none left. (Sub 287) 4.74 The Committee discussed this issue of outside employment, wages and trust monies in its report Lost Innocents. The Committee noted that in some States trust or other savings accounts were established for wards of the State when they took up employment. Children were generally paid a wage - half in cash (which presumably paid for food and board and was given to the carer) and half banked by Child Welfare. The Western Australian Department advised that trust monies should have been paid when the child turned 21, went to work or was married. Money not collected was returned to Treasury. However, financial records are only kept for seven years so 'we cannot prove that we have given them the money but we cannot prove that we have not given them the money'.[228] Use of experimental medications and drugs 4.75 Children in orphanages and Homes have been used for medial experiments for many decades. Some of these have been reported in medical journals. Many questions are raised, not least of all is that if these experiments were known, what other experiments may have occurred that were not officially reported? 4.76 A description of photos from St Vincent's Orphanage Nudgee c.1928 in the State Library of Queensland reads: Groups of children from Nudgee Orphanage, 600 of whom were immunised against diphtheria, with no ill effects. As a result of the favourable report thereon immunization against diphtheria was established in Queensland.[229] 4.77 In the years following WWII, children were repeatedly struck down by outbreaks of polio, influenza, whooping cough and other diseases that left many children permanently disabled, or dead. A number of research institutes, such as the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical research, were developing vaccines in Australia. These vaccines needed trialling and children in orphanages were used as the 'subjects' for a range of speculated reasons, including that they were often the most susceptible to disease as an epidemic could sweep through an orphanage. 4.78 The results of a number of experimental trials were reported in the Medical Journal of Australia and the Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science: * Two experiments to attempt to vaccinate against herpes simplex were conducted at St Joseph's Broadmeadows between March 1946 and April 1948. The first group used 51 babies and the second two groups totalling 32 babies between 7 and 10 months old. In both experiments children contracted the disease, leading to the conclusion that 'the vaccination was of no benefit in preventing primary herpetic infection under the conditions of the study'.[230] * A 1953 paper refers to influenza outbreaks in Victoria in 1946 then epidemics in 1950 and 1951, and studies undertaken at St Joseph's Broadmeadows (during this period about 250 children under three years were housed at Broadmeadows).[231] 4.79 In June 1997, The Age printed a series of articles on children in orphanages and babies' homes in Victoria being used for medical experiments and research until the 1970s that included trials of new vaccines that did not work or failed to pass safety tests in animals. The articles referred to studies additional to those described above, including trials of an experimental whooping cough vaccine using children from a number of institutions including St Gabriel's and Berry Street. Reported results from these trials indicated the vaccinations caused fevers and vomiting in some of the babies.[232] 4.80 It is unclear who was legally responsible for giving permission for children and babies to be used in these medical experiments. The Journal reports acknowledge that the studies were carried out with the cooperation of the sisters in charge of the orphanage. However, even if superiors at institutions or departmental authorities who had legal guardianship that covered care and protection, did this extend to agreement for the child to be used for experimentation? Not all the children were orphans, yet there appears to be no record of a parent's permission ever having been obtained. 4.81 In addition to the issue of consent, a number of other issues arise including what other research may have occurred and was it fully recorded, was there follow-up research and were children put at risk of these experiments (in some herpes research it is reported that a number of the subjects had left the Home during the course of the experiment), do any of the children know they were used as experimental subjects and did they suffer any long term adverse health effects? 4.82 The Age articles created considerable debate. Richard Larkins, Chairman of the National Health and Medical Research Council (that had provided grants for some of the earlier studies), editorialised in the Medical Journal of Australia that the community needs to be assured that current clinical research is of the highest ethical standard. He wrote: The apparent outrage to these media reports by many different sectors of the community indicates the need for all those involved in clinical research, and indeed in clinical care, to examine the events of the past, and learn from the reactions of the present...We must all note the community concerns, heed the lessons of the past and work to repair the damage.[233] 4.83 Shortkids Downunder also referred to the 1997 Age articles claiming that experimental drugs were administered to children in orphanages by medical practitioners during the period of the Australian Human Pituitary Hormone Program that treated infertility and short stature, especially the use of human growth hormone and human pituitary gonadotrophin.[234] A tragic consequence for recipients of pituitary hormone treatment from this program was being put at risk of contracting Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The Committee' 1997 Report on the CJD Settlement Offer noted that there were large numbers of unapproved recipients that had received hormones from a variety of sources that had not been approved as part of the official Program.[235] 4.84 The Wilson Youth Hospital in Queensland was for a period during the 1960s to early 1980s a unique institution doubling as a corrective institution and mental health facility run jointly by the Children's Services and Health Departments. It became notorious for the use of medication on children. The use of sedatives and other 'experimental' drugs have also been linked with Karrala House. There were 6 medication queues a day, where medications like Melleril, Largactil and Tryptonal were handed out. There were psychiatrists on staff and it was mandatory to go through their mental health assessment. This included EEG’s and various intelligence tests etc. Included in the assessment process was an enforced gynaecological examination, including an internal involving a speculum... Few of my peers, who were incarcerated in the late seventies, remain. Some did not make it out of their teens. Many died in their twenties, some before my eyes. Some decided it was all too hard and took their own lives. Many more however fell into the addiction trap, self-medicating so to speak. I strongly believe there is a direct correlation between the relentless medicating of inmates at Wilson Youth Hospital and the self-medicating that people mimicked that would eventually end their lives. (Sub 58) At Wilson I went through a series of medical tests, not told anything and talked to no one. I was heavily medicated and I remember some boys who would get a virtual cocktail of pills three times a day. (Sub105) We have since found out that drugs were put in our food to keep us quiet, and even though we cannot yet prove it we have also found out that some new drugs were tested on us. (Karrala - Conf Sub 3) 4.85 The Forde inquiry considered the use of 'medication' at both Wilson and Karrala House. During the 1960s and 70s both apparently operated as a psychiatric facility where 'treatment' was inspired by a 'medical model'. This conceptualised the child's 'anti-social' behaviour solely in medical (psychiatric) terms with little or no regard to social or other factors. What was deemed to be required was medical intervention in the form of psychotherapy and 'chemotherapy', generally involving the use of anti-convulsants, sedatives and tranquillisers. Forde notes that the DCS at the time asserted that inmates of Karrala were 'treated along modern psychiatric lines with up to date tranquilliser drugs'.[236] With orderlies having no medical training and with modern treatment using up to date drugs in the 1960s and 70s it is highly likely that there were elements of experimentation in their usage. 4.86 Largactil was widely reported as a drug commonly used to pacify 'out-of-control' children. Doses of Lithium and Melleril were also referred to as being regularly used to sedate young children.[237] Children placed in mental homes and other inappropriate accommodation Children should not ever be placed in a ward with adults in a psychiatric hospital and should always be supervised. At Rydalmere Psychiatric Hospital in 1971 I was placed in a ward with adult men and was sexually assaulted in a toilet block by another inmate. I was only 12 years of age. (Sub 318) 4.87 A number of submissions from Queensland referred to being placed in mental hospitals for reasons such as running away from other homes. As discussed above the Wilson Youth Hospital served a variety of purposes. In the late 1970s children were still being placed in adult mental health institutions, including Lowson House and Wolston Park: I was placed in an adult mental health institution as a child. I will start with Warilda, because that is where the mental health side of it started...they sent me to D floor at Lowson House, which was an adult institution. It was a big dormitory with about 30 women in it. The day I got there I had to be processed. There was a lady who kept screaming for help. I went to try and help her, and she was in this little cell. Because I made a bit of a scene about that and would not take my medication, they dragged me off to the cell too. They took all my clothes off and just left me on the floor, I was 13, and that was just the beginning.[238] I was sent to Goodna Mental Hospital at Ipswich [now Wolston Park] ...there was nothing mentally wrong with most State Wards that were sent here, they were sent here because they were hard to handle and they could keep them drugged up and under control here...There is also a letter [in my file] written by a doctor to the Welfare Department saying that I should not be there as this place was non-therapeutic for me and that I should be out in a hostel doing a business course. Well of course 6 months later I was still there...We were drugged up most of the time, I was sexually abused and told that this would happen at any time that I tried to escape...I was locked up for some months in the CRIMINALLY INSANE WARD and was nearly murdered by one of the inmates. It was in this ward that I got a beating with a belt and the buckle cut my face and has left a scar...In this ward I was forced to give a wardsman oral sex and got a beating when I first refused. It was in this ward that I was sodomised and raped. It was in this ward that I have been left with scars such as the scar on my face, cigarette burns on my arms and scars on my hand where it was cut with glass...It is beyond me that when people hear that children were put in with the CRIMINALLY INSANE that they are not as mad as hell. There are not a lot of us left as a lot have committed suicide and some just did not make it out of there. (Conf Sub 3) 4.88 One lady reported being placed in Marillac House (a home for people with intellectual disability or social and emotional problems) at the age of 9 even though file records show that only 3 years earlier a psychologist had assessed her as 'clearly of normal intelligence'. the girls there were aged between 5-10 years and most of them were severely retarded, could not speak properly and made no sense and some of them had no control of their bodies...Had no friends. "My best friend was the dog - he would play with me - the other kids I played with couldn’t remember the game the next day." "I hated being seen with the kids...I had to dress exactly like them all in the same dress and sandals - it made you look like them and I hated it - we had to walk on the street and it was so embarrassing". (Sub 264) 4.89 A number of submissions reported people being placed in mental homes for what was apparently a form of punishment for misbehaviour such as running away, refusing to work or perform chores or arguing with Sisters or staff. The use of drugs to pacify children for what may now be considered high spirited or adolescent behaviour was also common and is referred to in the previous section. The use of such institutions for adolescent children is unjustifiable and the impact that it had upon them incalculable. At the age of 12, I was taken to the Lachlan Park Asylum... I used to look after the little kids in this place. I’ll never forget the ones with encephalitis - there were about 6 or 7 of them - with their swollen heads just lying in their cots waiting to die. There were also 5 girls in there who were just vegetables, 3 were sisters...Once I remember the nurses putting hot water bottles on them without covers on them and they got bad burns. There were also 25 little Downs Syndrome children who would be taken out of their beds each morning and strapped onto potty chairs where they stayed all day until they were bathed in the afternoon and put back to bed. They weren’t allowed to walk or run around... As the children’s ward was not locked, I decided to escape one day, but I didn’t know how to get out. I remember it being freezing cold and the nurses found me before I could get out. They took me back to the children’s ward and gave me a tablet, which I spat out. Later they came back and told me to get dressed, and they then took me to another ward where I could hear lots of screaming. This was where they kept the 'real crazies'. They put me in a cell with a small peephole in the door. I was so scared I couldn’t sleep. (Sub 182) another girl...spent 3 years in Graylands. I didn’t know this until I bumped into her just before she died last year. She looked so frail (was anorexic) and sad and although she could barely talk, we did spend some time talking about the past. It was obvious that she had never psychologically left the orphanage and she had a real fear of being sent back to Graylands. She also told me that she had lost her daughter to a drug overdose. (Sub 172) I ran away from the Home at Cheltenham on three separate occasions. My motivation each time was to try to escape from the abuse, the terrifying experiences, the persecution and regular beatings...After my third escape I was placed by the brothers into a receiving house at the Mont Park Asylum. This was a terrifying experience...As I was fairly small and only a young teenager, I was sometimes physically attacked by some of the older patients with mental illnesses...During the night I was locked up in a small cell that had bars on a window and a solid door with a small, barred, glass window in it...I spent about two years at Mont Park...until this doctor made an assessment of me and then told me that I should not be in such a place. I was 14 years of age. (Conf Sub 98) 4.90 A number of the harshest institutions that had reputations well known among the children included reformatories (indeed to be sent to such a place was widely used as a threat to control children) and remand or detention centres. However, many children were sent to these places even though they did not have 'a record'. We boys at Westbrook had nobody to turn to. Some of them (like myself) were considered 'delinquents', but many were just orphans who were too old for the orphanage yet had nowhere else to go. They were treated just as badly. (Westbrook - Sub 141) I was unaware that Vaughan House was a remand centre for delinquent girls, nor was I told this. I was eleven years of age at this time and I had not committed any offence. I agreed since it was my Social Worker’s suggestion. I was the youngest inmate, several years younger than all the other inmates were. I felt intimidated by them and was often scared. (Vaughan House, Adelaide - Sub 273) I was 13 when I went to stay at Minali for what was to have been one night and turned into 8 and half months of hell...When I got there, I called my caseworker that said to calm down; I would only be there for the night and to calm down. This caseworker left a week later [without] visiting me and my case file was not handed on to anyone else. (Sub 69) 4.91 The NSW Commissioner for Children and Young People has submitted: Until the late 1980’s or early 1990’s it was possible in Australian jurisdictions for children who had not offended against the law to be placed in detention centres or prisons. The detention or imprisonment of non-offending youth was often utilised by Australian 'child welfare' departments as an option if a child was 'uncontrollable' or 'difficult' and as a consequential punishment for behaviour such as absconding. The provision to place children and young people in detention was also used as a response to the 'immoral' behaviour of young women. The sentencing patterns of the juvenile or criminal courts or the use of administratively sanctioned detention as a form of care for many children, reflected a time where authorities frequently argued the rehabilitative capacity of their detention and punishment systems. Research is generally pessimistic about the rehabilitative power of detention, institutionalisation or imprisonment.[239] 4.92 State wards could find themselves in places with a diverse mix of residents. The inmate population was made up of women of all ages. There were girls who had become too old to stay in institutions for young children. These girls tended to have an intellectual disability or physical disability. Some women were single mothers and others were old women with dementia. Also many young girls had been placed by the courts for protection or for criminal offences. I was so traumatized and shocked that I didn't menstruate for about 12 months. I cried and hardly spoke a word for the first few months. (St Aiden's, Bendigo - Sub166) Fostering arrangements, including holiday placements 4.93 Institutions would place children in foster homes for short periods, weekends or during holiday periods ('Holiday Hosts' as the nuns would call them). This was often undertaken in an uncoordinated manner with expediency rather than child welfare being a primary consideration. No attempt was made to match couples with children nor understand the needs of either party. Many reported being placed with much older couples or people with limited child rearing skills and questioned the motivation of some people who accepted children - 'I am sure they only took us to get the money'. Stories were told of being used as a form of cheap 'slave labour' while others were sexually abused by the foster parents, their children or relatives. When people came to look for foster kids we were lined up like cows so they could pick who they liked. (Sub 194) 'Foster care' was actually being 'farmed' out as temporary worker...I was sent to those who needed a slave & a slave I was (Sub 293) It seems that the government paid people to care for abandoned children - in the hard years of the Depression the extra income would have been welcome in many families. I later found out that the head of the house and his sons were the town drunks and I guess I was used for drinking silver and cheap labour. (Sub 320) We were placed every holiday with complete strangers and it was always somewhere different. I never understood why I was never asked back to any of these foster homes...It wasn't until I read my wardship file that I learned I was wanted back but as Catholic welfare did not co-ordinate with the state welfare this never happened. ...these [foster] people had no intention of having a child for the holidays to give them some home comforts, and a taste of family life, some wanted housemaids, someone to do the housework and watch the younger children...This was what the system was set up for, not with our best interests put first but to fill the needs of families and the Church was so grateful to these people. (Sub 351) The truth is that if anyone had seen how we had to live, being child slaves to these very poor excuses of foster parents, we would have been taken from them, they would lose the payment for us and they would have no one to push around and make do all their housework. (Sub 206) Social welfare standards around 1960 for the foster-placement of children were as lax as the advertising of tobacco products. My first placement occurred as the result of two pensioners placing an add in the local newspaper. Aged in their 60’s, my foster father was mostly confined to bed, his injuries the result of military participation in both world wars...My foster mother didn’t drink or smoke, and most outings consisted of excursions to horse racing tracks and places filled with people playing cards and drinking. (Sub 401) My Foster parents were and are wonderful people, but in their middle ages, childless and with no parental training, they were totally unprepared to take on the parenting, of the troubled nine or ten year old I was. (Sub 321) 4.94 Issues relating to foster care generally and contemporary problems, remedies and future directions for foster care will be considered in the Committee's second report. Deaths in institutions On a few occasions the police would come to the orphanage if one of the girls died. I remember once when a baby had died and the police came - we were told what to say by the nuns, which meant lying. (St Joseph's Subiaco - Sub172) My older brother has a story about a child in his time two or three years before my stay at Westmead where a child was killed and hushed up by the staff and no more was heard, it still puzzles him today. (Sub 303) I am writing this brief note on behalf of my younger brother Owen. Owen died whilst in the care of some Church of England nuns. Owen apparently had a tumour on brain and he was smacked across the head by the nuns. This apparently caused the tumour to burst and Owen died as a result. Owen was 3 yrs of age at that time. (Sub 411) 4.95 As was the case with the Child Migrants inquiry, the Committee heard stories of children who died while in care, in mysterious circumstances or 'disappeared', especially if they had been sick or injured. Some of these stories were accompanied by comments of possible foul play or cover up. Children were usually never given information in Homes, and it is possible that in many cases of allegedly missing children the child could have been transferred to hospital or another home and no one would be told. 4.96 The Forde Commission in its Closed Report on Neerkol endeavoured to establish if there was any basis in fact for the stories of a number of former residents over suspicious deaths and burials in unmarked graves. Not all were satisfactorily resolved with a couple of accounts unable to be confirmed either through first-hand evidence or contemporary documents.[240] 4.97 The Committee noted in Lost Innocents that the records relating to the deaths of some child migrants had been destroyed and that coronial inquests had not appeared to be conducted on some violent deaths. The Committee considered that the lack of coronial inquests and the history of cover-ups of other assaults lead to the conclusion that there should as a minimum be some suspicion concerning the events surrounding some deaths. Unfortunately the passage of years meant that pursuit of cases would now produce inconclusive results.[241] 4.98 With the level of physical assault that has been reported in evidence, it is highly probable that within a group of 500 000 over many years some deaths would occur as either a direct or indirect result of these assaults. While the Committee only received minimal anecdotal and circumstantial evidence, there remains a suspicion of a pattern of limited investigation by police or authorities, no inquests, and police or authorities accepting unquestioningly the word of the carers in relation to deaths occurring at their institution. I witnessed a boy who was attacked by a brother and after being punched and beaten he was thrown down the stairs. This boy was taken to the infirmary and I found out that he died a short time later. Later on the day of this incident I was near the infirmary and I overheard some brothers talking. One of the brothers claimed that the boy had fallen down the stairs. (Conf Sub 98) [One boy stabbed another boy] with a pocket knife he had. The whole thing was - how do you say - hushed up by the nuns. We weren't allowed to discuss it. We weren't allowed to speak to the police...So it was more or less swept under the carpet. We did have a mass at this little boy’s funeral. The mass was in the chapel at the orphanage. But, as far as I know, there was never any blame laid on [the other boy] at all. So what happened about that is anybody’s guess. (Conf Sub 107) I befriended an Aboriginal boy, and I can remember being belted black and blue because I was a 'nigger lover'. At that time in Baltara, that boy - I can say now - was probably murdered. I was being held in bed, by people who were supposed to be keeping me safe, while this boy was being bashed.[242] 4.99 The Committee is also aware that on 28 June 2004 the South Australian Police Commissioner initiated a review following the raising in the South Australian Parliament of allegations by a former State ward that a child had been killed while he was an inmate at an orphanage in Adelaide in the 1960s.[243] 4.100 In earlier years of the century children died from disease which could sweep through an institution. Through lack of hygiene and nutrition children in these times were more susceptible to contract disease, which could in their weakened condition prove fatal. Transition from in care to independence 4.101 If life in the institution was not traumatic enough, leaving it was equally so. With little or no aftercare services many care leavers reported that their departure from care consisted of a letter from the department wishing them well and being given a suitcase with what meagre possessions and clothing they may have acquired, some money if they were lucky and being shown the door. They were left to fend for themselves. These 6 [Hopewood] girls spent 4 years or more working as UNPAID LABOURERS in the NUNS COMMERCIAL LAUNDRY [Good Shepherd, Ashfield]. When they neared their 18th birthday, they were called out of the workrooms, told to change their clothes, they were given a small suitcase which contained all their possessions, they were given 1.00 and shown the door. These girls were just dumped on the street just a few days before their 18th birthday, they were not given a chance to tell the other girls they were leaving. (Sub 93) 4.102 There was no gradual introduction to the outside world, and no preparation to cope with it, so that children had no preparation for adulthood and little idea how to live a 'normal' life. The 'outside world' often proved overwhelming as they had not been trained in any of the most basic life skills. I left Burnside quite unprepared for life in the real world. I was afraid of everything - people, unfamiliar places, public transport, conversation, shopping, loud voices, being alone with one person, authority figures and so on. (Sub 276) When I finally left that home I was so unprepared for the outside world that I fell into a world of alcohol and drugs which allowed me hide myself and my problems from those around me. I had no training in handling any of the things that I was confronted with and so made many mistakes. (Sub 20) Even at eighteen, after leaving the state's care, I had no idea how to catch a bus, or how to pay my fare, or any idea of the outside world after being institutionalised. It was very hard to fit into a society of which I had absolutely no knowledge or experience. (Sub 8) I found the world was a lot different to what I knew in the 'Homes'. It was hard to adjust and I found it hard to communicate with people. Institutional life had protected me and now I was on my own. (Sub 153) When I left Dalmar I could not deal with free time, I did not know what to do with free time as I had developed no interests or hobbies. Even when I had my own children I found it very difficult to play with them. (Sub 136) There should have been support, counselling and follow up once I turned 18, especially since I had a history of suicide attempts. There was nothing at all available; I was dumped like a hot potato. (Sub 318) 4.103 This was yet another form of abandonment. Often the only home they knew was the institution. Having had any sense of self worth crushed during childhood, they were now thrown out alone into the outside world and expected to function as an individual. How could the welfare allow young girls and boys to go out into the world so institutionalised. We were like little children not knowing how to cope with all the changes. No wonder so many ended back in institutions and gaol there was no preparation for us. I feel the welfare thought that was all we deserved, and would end up there anyway, as we were no good. (Sub 407) Good memories 4.104 Among all the vividly recalled bad memories of life in an institution, some also recalled happier occasions. Some country based institutions would provide an annual outing to the city where the children would go to the pictures, catch a ferry to the zoo or go and see a show. Others recalled being taught drama, singing and dancing or performing in a band. Performing plays at country town halls gave an opportunity to get away from the home. We also put on a play out in the wheat-belt. Us kids then spent the night and the next day at various farms - the people I went with were really kind and this was the first time that anybody had showed me any kindness. (Parkerville - Conf Sub 44) [Our band was] invited to visit other towns to play. Dalgety Show Committee invited us to play at their show. We were very well treated and had all the food and drink we wanted. This was great and we enjoyed ourselves. (Gill - Sub 292) 4.105 For others, the only fun they had they made for themselves. Children, irrespective of circumstances, seem to be able to make fun of nearly any situation. The highly shined floors were great for skidding on and we also used to drink the communion wine and play confessions. Another way of having fun was playing truth and dare with the coffins where girls would dare each other to take the cotton wool out of the dead nun’s noses or take their rosaries off. We used to have pictures shown regularly, and this was good fun. If you were naughty, you were still allowed to go but had to sit with your back to the screen. What the nuns didn’t realise though was that as most of them wore glasses and used to sit behind us girls, you could watch the movie through the reflection in their glasses. (St Joseph's Subiaco - Sub 172) Conclusion 4.106 The Forde Inquiry found that unsafe, improper or unlawful treatment of children had occurred in most of the institutions for which submissions had been made and which had been licensed or established under the relevant Queensland Acts. Breaches of Regulations in relation to food, clothing, education and corporal punishment were commonplace in institutions.[244] 4.107 The submissions and evidence of care leavers to this inquiry were from a wide-range of government and non-government institutions and out-of-home care across Australia and covering nearly 70 years. As with the Forde Inquiry, the stories put to the Committee indicate that unsafe, improper and unlawful treatment of children was widespread and not limited to particular States, places or periods of time - although a number of institutions in each State were more notorious and severe in their treatment of children entrusted to their care. 4.108 Procedures to protect children from emotional, physical and sexual abuse and neglect were either insufficient or non-existent, for example visits by welfare to check on children in placements did not appear to be thorough nor was the investigation of claims by children about being abused by carers. 4.109 The stories reported to the Committee contain many serious breaches of statutory obligations in relation to the provision of care and treatment that was experienced while in care. There were stories of children being systemically abused, either through omission of duty to protect children from abuse, or through direct emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The seriousness of these breaches can be established when compared with the requirements outlined in respective State Child Welfare Acts or the protocols for the conduct of particular institutions in the treatment of children placed in their care that were operating at the time, as was discussed in chapter 2. Issues relating to failure of duty of care are also discussed in chapter 7. 4.110 The questions arise as to why was such abuse able to occur and continue over lengthy periods of time and what was the life long impact for the children who suffered from such abuse while in care? These questions are addressed in the following two chapters.
Edit Links2004-07-28 Queensland Political reform Group

Submission ofcorrespondence copies as evidence of activity relating to: •:~ The shredding of the Heiner documents by the authority of the Queensland Government Executive on 23.3.1990, and the following cover-up to date ~• The Lindeberg Grievance submitted by the late MrRobert GreenwoodQC

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,Catholic Abuse,Global,Australia,



Edit Links2004-07-28 Amanda Lohrey - analysis of Cardinal George Pell

Amanda Lohrey’s Quarterly Review essay is a significant contribution to our understanding of the current intersection between religion and politics in Australia. She gets to the heart of the matter in her analysis of Cardinal George Pell and her comment that 'to be secular is not to be anti-religion, but to be anti-theocracy.' She is exactly right when she writes that beneath all the artillery-like exchange of words between government and religion 'the real deal is who gets what from the public purse'; it is also a useful corrective to point out that Hillsong has got so far and no further and that it is likely it has reached the limits of what could be called its effective demand.

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,Catholic Abuse,Global,Australia,



Edit Links2004-07-00 Child Abuse Crimes against Humanity committed by successive Queensland State Governments Page: 1

Submission to the Senate Community Affairs Committee Child Abuse, Crimes against Humanity, Queensland State Governments

1

,Australia,

Not dated

Edit Links2004-07-00 Child Abuse Crimes against Humanity committed by successive Queensland State Governments Page: 2

Child Abuse, Crimes against Humanity, Queensland State Governments

2

,Australia,

Not dated - appears to be page 2

Edit Links2004-07-00 Child Abuse Crimes against Humanity committed by successive Queensland State Governments Page: 3

Child Abuse, Crimes against Humanity, Queensland State Governments

3

,Australia,

Appears to be page 3 - not dated

Edit Links2004-07-00 Child Abuse Crimes against Humanity committed by successive Queensland State Governments Page: 4

Child Abuse, Crimes against Humanity, Queensland State Governments

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,Australia,Criminal Activity,Death,Incompetence,Medical Issues,Neglect,,United Kingdom,



Edit Links2004-00-00 Orphans experimented on without consent. [External Link]

Orphans experimented on without consent. Broadmeadows Babies' Home, an unimpressive rambling collection of brick and weatherboard buildings about 20 kilometres north of Melbourne, was an unlikely setting for cruel medical experiments, but it was there in September 1947 that researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research started work to try to find a vaccination against herpes simplex.



1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,Medical Issues,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,rhaKFXV63,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,UctCEBEwqRI,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,YhOQHcUv,

Date estimated

Orphans experimented on without consent. Selected human guinea pigs. Cruel Doctors Abuse their Position of Trust Orphans used in cruel vaccine research experiments Broadmeadows Babies' Home, an unimpressive rambling collection of brick and weatherboard buildings about 20 kilometres north of Melbourne, was an unlikely setting for cruel medical experiments, but it was there in September 1947 that researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research started work to try to find a vaccination against herpes simplex. Every healthy child in permanent residence between seven and 10 months of age was selected as a human guinea pig. At first 16 babies were injected with an adult dose (one millilitre) of undiluted herpes virus. This was repeated in nine of the children two months later. Before each dose of herpes, the babies were given a preliminary injection of the vaccine, to see whether it would stop the spread of the herpes. Seven of the children showed an adverse reaction after the second preliminary injection and did not receive a full follow-up dose. The origins of the experiment - funded with a National Health and Medical Research Council grant - can be found in The Medical Journal of Australia of 5 March 1949, where the researchers published the results of an earlier herpes in children'' study at the home. Fifty-one of the 240 babies at the home were used between March 1946 and February 1947. Broadmeadows Babies' Home, opened in 1890 and run by the Roman Catholic Sisters of St Joseph, housed orphans and wards of state until they were about five years old, when they were sent to other Catholic institutions throughout Victoria. It closed in 1975. For scientists it offered an opportunity to observe the spread of the virus. Blood was repeatedly obtained by puncturing the babies' ear lobes, and cotton swabs were used to collect samples from mouth ulcers. The researchers hoped it might be possible to vaccinate other children against herpes in their first year of life. But their hopes were short-lived. According to their results, published in the Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science in 1950, blood taken from the babies over two years showed the dead herpes virus failed to provide protection. All of the 10 vaccinated children (six babies left the home before the end of the experiment) caught herpes. Of the 10 remaining healthy children in the control group who were not vaccinated, only eight caught herpes from the infected children. This result speaks clearly against the efficacy of vaccination,'' the researchers' report said. The vaccination was of no benefit in preventing primary herpetic infection.'' Trial vaccines failed to pass animal safety test The subsequent medical experiments conducted on the unsuspecting children in orphanages and babies' homes in Victoria continued until 1970, and included trials of new vaccines that did not work or failed to pass safety tests in animals. Some experiments included giving children a test vaccine against whooping cough which was never put into production. An investigation by the Melbourne Age newspaper revealed that hundreds of children in orphanages and babies' homes, including wards of state, were used in the experiments and studies over 25 years. They were used to test vaccines and antigens for toxic effects before the new products were used on children in the wider community. In most of the experiments babies developed adverse reactions, including vomiting and abscesses. Those carrying out the experiments also included researchers from the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories. Four of the church-run or independent institutions where experiments and tests took place have been identified, but others remain unidentified. In the largest experiment, which was still running in 1970, 350 infants between the ages of three months and 36 months in unnamed institutions were injected with full adult doses of trial influenza vaccines to test for toxic reactions. Trepidation as search for vaccine begins Some researchers from the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories admitted at the time that they approached the test, which involved injecting infants in institutions with large doses of experimentally prepared flu vaccine, with some trepidation'' because influenza vaccines had long been known to produce more severe toxic reactions in children than in adults''. Two previous tests of influenza vaccines on children produced severe toxic reactions, including anorexia, nausea, vomiting and fever. The results of the tests were never published. Production of a whooping cough vaccine used by the CSL on groups in babies' homes was halted only after it failed to pass a safety test in animals. Commonwealth Serum Laboratories researchers had taken the commercially available vaccine and mixed it with a detergent, sodium desoxycholate, to try to make it less toxic! Over three years from 1967, they selected more than 350 motherless infants aged between three months and three years and injected them with doses of the trial vaccine. In a paper on the tests presented to the International Symposium on Influenza Vaccines for Men and Horses in London in 1972, published the following year, the researchers said they were aware of two earlier unreported investigations in Victoria. The investigations caused a wide range of toxic reactions. The Age newspaper believes these tests occurred about 1961 and 1965. In view of the distress and danger to which our infant subjects were exposed, no attempt was made to repeat these earlier studies,'' the 1972 report says. Instead, each vaccine was given in increments to small groups until the then current level recommended for adults was reached.'' One group of 58 infants was given smaller doses, with six injected twice with the largest dose of trial vaccine. A second group of 92 was injected with smaller doses, with 10 going on to receive full adult doses. The researchers reported that two of the children had high temperatures after the first large dose, but attributed it to stomach disorders''. They gave the children a second large dose a month later with no subsequent rise in temperatures. A trial vaccine based on a different strain of flu virus was given to a third group of 103 infants in 1968 and 1969. Twenty of the infants went on to receive full adult doses given in two injections. One of the infants developed a fever that lasted 12 hours. In 1970 a further 100 infants received an adult dose in two injections of a vaccine based on two other types of flu virus and their reactions and temperatures monitored. The researchers concluded, in the absence of any long-term tests, that the vaccines mixed with the detergent desoxycholate could be safely given to infants. Present doses of flu vaccines for children recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council are two injections four weeks apart of .125 millilitres - or a quarter of an adult dose - for children between three months and two years. The recommended dose for children between two to six is two injections four weeks apart of .25 of a millilitre. Orphans experimented on without consent It is unclear in the experiments and studies uncovered by The Age who gave consent for the use of the infants. CSL's company secretary, Mr Peter Toohy, said in a statement to The Age: CSL Limited, an independent public company, could not comment on clinical trial protocols of the era when the then laboratories were an arm of the Commonwealth Department of Health.'' The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research admitted it had conducted tests with a killed herpes simplex vaccine on 16 children at the St Joseph's Foundling Hospital, which was also known as the Broadmeadows Babies' Home, and that the experimental vaccine failed to protect the children against the virus. These studies were carried out with the cooperation of the sisters in charge of the orphanage,'' the institute's spokesman, Dr David Vaux, claimed. If similiar studies were to be carried out today, the experimental protocols would have to be approved by a human ethics committee and informed consent would have to be obtained by the individuals involved or their guardians.'' Dr Vaux said he could only assume that consent to use the babies came from the Roman Catholic order that ran the orphanage, the Sisters of St Joseph. Sister Colleen O'Dwyer, the order's province leader, claimed she was unaware of any form of medical experimentation'' having taken place. WELCOME TO CLAN Care Leavers of Australia Network Care Leavers Australia Network (CLAN) is a support and advocacy group for people brought up in care away from their family as state wards or Home children raised in Children's Homes, orphanages or other institutions, or in foster care. CLAN is also for anyone who has a close family member who was placed in care. my connected community (mc2) This Webpage has been created using the my connected community (mc2) Webpage generator. my connected community (mc2) is funded by the Victorian Government and coordinated by VICNET
Edit Links2003-11-26 George Brandis speech in Parliament - contradicts earlier/later statements/speeches

Brandis speech in Parliament - contradicts earlier/later statements/speeches



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THE SENATE MATTERS OF PUBLIC IMPORTANCE Heiner Affair and Lindeberg Grievance SPEECH Wednesday, 26 November 2003 BY AUTHORITY OF THE SENATE Wednesday, 26 November 2003 THE SENATE 18092 CHAMBER SPEECH Date Wednesday, 26 November 2003 Source Senate Page 18092 Proof No Questioner Responder Speaker Brandis, Sen George Question No. Senator BRANDIS (Queensland) (4.14 pm)—Before I commence my remarks, I want to congratulate Senator Harris on a very thoughtful, considered and persuasive speech. When the sad events leading to the resignation of the former Governor-General Dr Hollingworth were played out before the Australian people in the first half of this year, there would not have been a politician in this country who was more swift to condemn Dr Hollingworth and more swift to try and earn some cheap, political points out of his circumstances than the Premier of Queensland, Mr Beattie. No-one was more eloquent than Mr Beattie in the condemnation of the cover-up of child abuse. One of the things Mr Beattie said at the time was that there must be a national royal commission into the issue of child abuse. He demanded that that happen and he earned the publicity yield, which no doubt he sought, when he made that demand. Surprising therefore was it that when, only a couple of months later, the respected Independent member for Gladstone in Queensland parliament, Mrs Cunningham, moved to establish a royal commission into child abuse on 20 August 2003 Mr Beattie spoke strenuously against her proposal and used his overwhelming numbers in the Queensland parliament to thwart her proposal. The fact is, and Senator Harris's remarks about the Lindeberg grievance brings this to light yet again, that the failure of the Queensland government over many years properly to deal with serious allegations about the abuse of children in care or children in protection has become a matter of growing concern to the people of my state. It started with the so-called Lindeberg grievance, about which Senator Harris has spoken, but that issue has recurred in many alarmingly repetitive forms in all the years since. Let me say something about the Lindeberg grievance. When the Goss government was elected in 1989, there was in being at the time an inquiry into allegations of child abuse at the John Oxley Youth Centre. One of the first things that the Goss government did, after coming to power on 2 December 1989, was to shut it down. I have with me a copy of the cabinet minute of 5 March 1990 and the supporting cabinet submission in the name of the then Minister for Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, Anne Warner, recording the decision: That following advice from the State Archivist and the Crown Solicitor the material gathered by Mr. N. J. Heiner during his investigation into certain matters at the John Oxley Youth Centre be handed to the State Archivist for destruction under the terms of section 55 of the Libraries and Archives Act 1988. As the Queensland law then stood, records of that character could only be lawfully destroyed after the State Archivist had so certified. But what is curious about that decision is that it was sought to be justified on this ground, and I quote from the cabinet submission: Cabinet would be aware that Mr N. J. Heiner was appointed by the former Director-General, Department of Family Services, to investigate and report on certain management matters relating to the John Oxley Youth Centre. After obtaining advice from the Crown Solicitor, the Acting Director-General decided to terminate the investigation conducted by Mr Heiner, as the basis for his appointment did not provide any statutory immunity from legal action for him or for informants to the investigation. It went on to say: Destruction of the material gathered by Mr Heiner in the course of his investigation would reduce risk of legal action and provide protection for all involved in the investigation. What is very curious about that is that we have since obtained the legal advice from Mr O'Shea, the then Crown Solicitor, dated 23 January 1990. What Mr O'Shea said, and I quote, is this: I believe there is no legal impediment to the continuation of the inquiry— that is, the Heiner inquiry. He goes on to say: This advice is predicated on the fact that no legal action has been commenced which requires the production of those files and that you decide to discontinue Mr. Heiner's inquiry. So the basis put forward in the cabinet submission appears to have misrepresented the position. In any event, the Heiner inquiry having been closed down by the fiat of the then director-general of the family services department, the documents were destroyed having been certified for destruction by the State Archivist on the authority of a decision of the cabinet. Nevertheless, there is a large body Wednesday, 26 November 2003 THE SENATE 18093 CHAMBER of legal opinion—of which the opinion of the late Mr Bob Greenwood QC was one, and I understand from Senator Harris that an opinion recently expressed by a most respected retired judge of the Queensland Court of Appeal, Jim Thomas QC, is another—that it almost certainly did constitute a breach, by the entire cabinet, of section 129 of the Queensland Criminal Code. What the cabinet knew, and this was part of the cabinet submission, was that a Mr Coyne was about to initiate proceedings against the government in which the material destroyed as a result of the cabinet decision would have been material evidence. But it gets much worse than that: we now know that the key allegation made before the Heiner inquiry, the evidence of which was destroyed with the documents, was of the pack rape of a 14-year-old girl who was in the care of the John Oxley Youth Centre at the time. That has more recently come to light. On 3 November 2001, the Courier-Mail reported: A young Aboriginal woman has confirmed claims by several former staff members of a Brisbane youth detention centre that she was gang-raped while being held in the centre as a 14-year-old. ... ... ... The Courier-Mail has been told by former members of staff they had `no doubt' the matter of the gang rape had been raised with the 1989 Heiner inquiry into the John Oxley Centre. What is even more sinister about this is that on 28 March 1999, during the course of an interview with the Sunday program on Channel 9, a person who was a member of the cabinet which made that decision, Mr Pat Comben, who I think was the minister for the environment at the time, said this: In broad terms, we— that is, the cabinet— were all made aware there was material about child abuse. Individual members of cabinet were increasingly concerned about whether or not the right decision had been taken. I only have a few minutes and there is so much to say about this, but, by just joining the dots, it amounts to this: a submission was taken to cabinet at the beginning of 1990, evidently on a false premise, which had the effect of authorising, probably in breach of section 129 of the Queensland Criminal Code, the destruction of documents which proved the existence of a complaint of child abuse. That complaint, years later, was subsequently verified by the victim of that child abuse—and very serious child abuse: gang rape of a 14-year-old girl—and a member of that cabinet, Mr Comben, in years since, has confirmed on the public record that the cabinet knew about it. It does not get much more serious than that.
Edit Links2003-11-26 Heiner Affair and Lindeberg Grievance

Speaker Brandis, Sen George Question No. Senator BRANDIS (Queensland) (4.14 pm)—Before I commence my remarks, I want to congratulate Senator Harris on a very thoughtful, considered and persuasive speech. When the sad events leading to the resignation of the former Governor-General Dr Hollingworth were played out before the Australian people in the first half of this year, there would not have been a politician in this country who was more swift to condemn Dr Hollingworth and more swift to try and earn some cheap, political points out of his circumstances than the Premier of Queensland, Mr Beattie. No-one was more eloquent than Mr Beattie in the condemnation of the cover-up of child abuse. One of the things Mr Beattie said at the time was

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THE SENATE MATTERS OF PUBLIC IMPORTANCE Heiner Affair and Lindeberg Grievance SPEECH Wednesday, 26 November 2003 BY AUTHORITY OF THE SENATE Wednesday, 26 November 2003 THE SENATE 18092 CHAMBER SPEECH Date Wednesday, 26 November 2003 Source Senate Page 18092 Proof No Questioner Responder Speaker Brandis, Sen George Question No. Senator BRANDIS (Queensland) (4.14 pm)—Before I commence my remarks, I want to congratulate Senator Harris on a very thoughtful, considered and persuasive speech. When the sad events leading to the resignation of the former Governor-General Dr Hollingworth were played out before the Australian people in the first half of this year, there would not have been a politician in this country who was more swift to condemn Dr Hollingworth and more swift to try and earn some cheap, political points out of his circumstances than the Premier of Queensland, Mr Beattie. No-one was more eloquent than Mr Beattie in the condemnation of the cover-up of child abuse. One of the things Mr Beattie said at the time was that there must be a national royal commission into the issue of child abuse. He demanded that that happen and he earned the publicity yield, which no doubt he sought, when he made that demand. Surprising therefore was it that when, only a couple of months later, the respected Independent member for Gladstone in Queensland parliament, Mrs Cunningham, moved to establish a royal commission into child abuse on 20 August 2003 Mr Beattie spoke strenuously against her proposal and used his overwhelming numbers in the Queensland parliament to thwart her proposal. The fact is, and Senator Harris's remarks about the Lindeberg grievance brings this to light yet again, that the failure of the Queensland government over many years properly to deal with serious allegations about the abuse of children in care or children in protection has become a matter of growing concern to the people of my state. It started with the so-called Lindeberg grievance, about which Senator Harris has spoken, but that issue has recurred in many alarmingly repetitive forms in all the years since. Let me say something about the Lindeberg grievance. When the Goss government was elected in 1989, there was in being at the time an inquiry into allegations of child abuse at the John Oxley Youth Centre. One of the first things that the Goss government did, after coming to power on 2 December 1989, was to shut it down. I have with me a copy of the cabinet minute of 5 March 1990 and the supporting cabinet submission in the name of the then Minister for Family Services and Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, Anne Warner, recording the decision: That following advice from the State Archivist and the Crown Solicitor the material gathered by Mr. N. J. Heiner during his investigation into certain matters at the John Oxley Youth Centre be handed to the State Archivist for destruction under the terms of section 55 of the Libraries and Archives Act 1988. As the Queensland law then stood, records of that character could only be lawfully destroyed after the State Archivist had so certified. But what is curious about that decision is that it was sought to be justified on this ground, and I quote from the cabinet submission: Cabinet would be aware that Mr N. J. Heiner was appointed by the former Director-General, Department of Family Services, to investigate and report on certain management matters relating to the John Oxley Youth Centre. After obtaining advice from the Crown Solicitor, the Acting Director-General decided to terminate the investigation conducted by Mr Heiner, as the basis for his appointment did not provide any statutory immunity from legal action for him or for informants to the investigation. It went on to say: Destruction of the material gathered by Mr Heiner in the course of his investigation would reduce risk of legal action and provide protection for all involved in the investigation. What is very curious about that is that we have since obtained the legal advice from Mr O'Shea, the then Crown Solicitor, dated 23 January 1990. What Mr O'Shea said, and I quote, is this: I believe there is no legal impediment to the continuation of the inquiry— that is, the Heiner inquiry. He goes on to say: This advice is predicated on the fact that no legal action has been commenced which requires the production of those files and that you decide to discontinue Mr. Heiner's inquiry. So the basis put forward in the cabinet submission appears to have misrepresented the position. In any event, the Heiner inquiry having been closed down by the fiat of the then director-general of the family services department, the documents were destroyed having been certified for destruction by the State Archivist on the authority of a decision of the cabinet. Nevertheless, there is a large body Wednesday, 26 November 2003 THE SENATE 18093 CHAMBER of legal opinion—of which the opinion of the late Mr Bob Greenwood QC was one, and I understand from Senator Harris that an opinion recently expressed by a most respected retired judge of the Queensland Court of Appeal, Jim Thomas QC, is another—that it almost certainly did constitute a breach, by the entire cabinet, of section 129 of the Queensland Criminal Code. What the cabinet knew, and this was part of the cabinet submission, was that a Mr Coyne was about to initiate proceedings against the government in which the material destroyed as a result of the cabinet decision would have been material evidence. But it gets much worse than that: we now know that the key allegation made before the Heiner inquiry, the evidence of which was destroyed with the documents, was of the pack rape of a 14-year-old girl who was in the care of the John Oxley Youth Centre at the time. That has more recently come to light. On 3 November 2001, the Courier-Mail reported: A young Aboriginal woman has confirmed claims by several former staff members of a Brisbane youth detention centre that she was gang-raped while being held in the centre as a 14-year-old. ... ... ... The Courier-Mail has been told by former members of staff they had `no doubt' the matter of the gang rape had been raised with the 1989 Heiner inquiry into the John Oxley Centre. What is even more sinister about this is that on 28 March 1999, during the course of an interview with the Sunday program on Channel 9, a person who was a member of the cabinet which made that decision, Mr Pat Comben, who I think was the minister for the environment at the time, said this: In broad terms, we— that is, the cabinet— were all made aware there was material about child abuse. Individual members of cabinet were increasingly concerned about whether or not the right decision had been taken. I only have a few minutes and there is so much to say about this, but, by just joining the dots, it amounts to this: a submission was taken to cabinet at the beginning of 1990, evidently on a false premise, which had the effect of authorising, probably in breach of section 129 of the Queensland Criminal Code, the destruction of documents which proved the existence of a complaint of child abuse. That complaint, years later, was subsequently verified by the victim of that child abuse—and very serious child abuse: gang rape of a 14-year-old girl—and a member of that cabinet, Mr Comben, in years since, has confirmed on the public record that the cabinet knew about it. It does not get much more serious than that.
Edit Links2003-11-26 Children in State Care Commission of Inquiry (Chapter 5)

Deaths of children in State care

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Edit Links2003-09-23 Your Complaint,CMC, Beattie, Asbestos

Your Complaint,CMC, Beattie,Asbestos Complaint to CMC (CMC never questioned John - said they investigated - complaint dismissed) Raised the issue of asbestos Release of court documents



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Edit Links2003-07-22 To whom it may concern, St Mary's cathedral, archbishop of Perth, Hickey

QLD govt takes XXXX to court to try to get back committal court documents in XXXX's possession - Placed subpoena to not disclose the contents of the document To whom it may concern,st Mary's cathedral,archbishop of Perth,hickey Cover up between what it knew and what it did The Court forbad XXXX from exposing the coverup The court said it did not fit in his jurisdiction It is questionable due to being done in chambers - is questionable if WA had jurisdiction - acting on behalf of another State - If there was crime it was carried out in Queensland - Mr Beattie (in the House) I believe we will find it virtually impossible to act against this person (XXXX) due to separation of state laws



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Edit Links2003-02-22 Sorry story of rape transcripts Page: 1

Sorry story of rape transcripts Woman who was raped by catholic priest Reginald Durham

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Sorry story of rape transcripts Woman who was raped by catholic priest Reginald Durham

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Edit Links2003-01-03 Babies Used for Medical Experiments [External Link]

Babies Used for Medical Experiments HUNDREDS of children in orphanages and care homes in the Australian state of Victoria were used as guinea pigs in secret medical experiments for 25 years up to 1970, it was disclosed yesterday.



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By Geoffrey Lee Martin in Sydney HUNDREDS of children in orphanages and care homes in the Australian state of Victoria were used as guinea pigs in secret medical experiments for 25 years up to 1970, it was disclosed yesterday. The experiments, some on babies three months old, included trials of new vaccines for herpes, whooping cough and influenza. The largest test was of 350 infants up to three years old injected with full adult doses of trial influenza vaccines. The trials were designed to test for toxic reactions even though medical researchers knew the vaccines often produced more severe reactions in children than in adults. Some of the vaccines used on children had failed safety tests on animals, said the newspaper The Age. In some cases the children developed serious reactions, including abscesses and vomiting. Jeff Kennett, the Premier of Victoria, last night ordered an immediate inquiry into the disclosures. Most of the tests were carried out by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories. It is not clear who gave permission to use the children for the experiments. The CSL refused to comment yesterday, saying it was now an independent public company but was then government-owned. Other experiments were done by the prestigious Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, a private medical organisation which confirmed that it knew of research for a herpes vaccine using 16 babies from a local home, in which it had been involved. Dr David Vaux, a spokesman for the institute, said on radio yesterday that the doctors who conducted the tests “should be seen as heroes saving lives” rather than as using children as guinea pigs. He said the institute confirmed tests at St Joseph’s Foundling Hospital, where meningitis killed up to 30 children in 1970. Vaccines, he said, were tested on animals to see whether there were any toxic effects and if there were not they were then tested on humans. “At the time there were all sorts of infectious epidemics going through children, especially where children were crowded together,” Dr Vaux said. “These included epidemics of lethal meningitis and poliomyelitis that caused death and paralysis . . . so people were desperate to try to prevent these diseases spreading and killing children. “They were given to healthy children to try to prevent them getting the disease, which was before penicillin . . . to stop them from acting as carriers. In this way many children’s lives were saved.” A group called Innovate, which acts as a voice for former wards of the state, has called for an inquiry, while the Australian Democrats party, which holds a key balance of power in the Federal Senate, has demanded a royal commission. “The federal government has a clear responsibility to launch an investigation into exactly what went on,” said Meg Lees, the Democrats’ spokesman on health. She said any royal commission should also look at CSL’s human pituitary hormone programme, where 2,500 people were given hormones from dead people between 1967 and 1985 to treat infertility and short stature.” Michael Wooldridge, the Federal Health Minister, said: “It shouldn’t have happened then, it couldn’t happen now.” He would not comment on the possibility of a federal inquiry.
Edit Links2003-00-00 Premiers Office Page 1 Page: 1

Premiers Office Page 1 Ause of power occurring in the premiers office Re the release of court documents - laws broken from the Premiers Office Complaint to CMC (CMC never questioned John - said they investigated - complaint dismissed) Raised the issue of asbestos

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Edit Links2003-00-00 Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Third Interim Report December 2003 [External Link]

The Vaccine Trials Division • The content of chapter 14 is based on the first Interim Report of the Vaccine Trials Division which has been adopted by the Commission.



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* CONTENTS * INDEX TO TABLES * FOREWORD * CHAPTER 1: The Commission: Establishment and Functions * CHAPTER 2: The Commission from Establishment to the Present * CHAPTER 3: Administration of the Commission * CHAPTER 4: The Commission: Research Project * CHAPTER 5: The Confidential Committee: From Establishment to the Present * CHAPTER 6: The Investigation Committee: From Establishment to the Present * CHAPTER 7: Investigation Committee: Complainant specific hearings * CHAPTER 8: The Investigation Committee: Baltimore Fisheries School * CHAPTER 9: Newtownforbes Industrial School Module * CHAPTER 10: The Investigation Committee: Department of Education & Science as Respondent to Allegations of Abuse * CHAPTER 11: Congregations of Religious as Respondents to Allegations of Abuse * CHAPTER 12: Investigation Committee: Complaint Profile * CHAPTER 13: Investigation Committee: Costs of Legal Representation * CHAPTER 14: The Vaccine Trials Division * APPENDICES o APPENDIX A: Opening Statement o APPENDIX B: Interim Report of May 2001 o APPENDIX C: Interim Report of November 2001 o APPENDIX D: Correspondence with Minister/Department of Education & Science in relation to resources and review of mandate o APPENDIX E: Submissions to Attorney General in review process o APPENDIX F: Framework of Procedures o APPENDIX G: Opening Statement: Vaccine Trials Division * INDEX Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Third Interim Report December 2003 ´ ´´ BAILE ATHA CLIATH ARNA FHOILSIU AG OIFIG AN tSOLATHAIR Le ceannach dı´reach o´ n OIFIG DHIOLTA FOILSEACHAN RIALTAIS, ´´ TEACH SUN ALLIANCE, SRAID THEACH LAIGHEAN, BAILE ATHA CLIATH 2, ´´ no´ trı´d an bpost o´ FOILSEACHAIN RIALTAIS, AN RANNOG POST-TRACHTA, ´ ´´ 51 FAICHE STIABHNA, BAILE ATHA CLIATH 2, ´ (Teil: 01 -6476834/35/36/37; Fax: 01 -6476843) no´ trı´ aon dı´olto´ ir leabhar. —————— DUBLIN PUBLISHED BY THE STATIONERY OFFICE To be purchased directly from the GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS SALE OFFICE, SUN ALLIANCE HOUSE, MOLESWORTH STREET, DUBLIN 2, or by mail order from GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS, POSTAL TRADE SECTION, 51 ST. STEPHEN’S GREEN, DUBLIN 2, (Tel: 01 -6476834/35/36/37; Fax: 01 -6476843) or through any bookseller. —————— Wt. P—. 4,000. 1/04. Cahill. (M83779). G.Spl. Contents Page INDEX TO TABLES v FOREWORD vii CHAPTER 1 The Commission: Establishment and Functions 1 CHAPTER 2 The Commission from Establishment to the Present 9 CHAPTER 3 Administration of the Commission 29 CHAPTER 4 The Commission: Research Project 35 CHAPTER 5 The Confidential Committee: From Establishment to the Present 37 CHAPTER 6 The Investigation Committee: From Establishment to the Present 65 CHAPTER 7 Investigation Committee: Complainant Specific Hearings 81 CHAPTER 8 The Investigation Committee: Baltimore Fisheries School 105 CHAPTER 9 Newtownforbes Industrial School Module 145 CHAPTER 10 The Investigation Committee: Department of Education & Science as Respondent to Allegations of Abuse 151 Page CHAPTER 11 Congregations of Religious as Respondents to Allegations of Abuse 169 CHAPTER 12 Investigation Committee: Complaint Profile 175 CHAPTER 13 Investigation Committee: Costs of Legal Representation 197 CHAPTER 14 The Vaccine Trials Division 209 APPENDICES 229 INDEX 421 INDEX TO TABLES Foreword Just short of two years ago, a witness who was giving evidence to the Investigation Committee was asked by my colleague, Dr. Imelda Ryan, why she had chosen to come to the Commission. She replied as follows: ‘‘The reason why I came before the Commission is that I read an article to sort of say that the Government were very, very sorry and that there was going to be an inquiry into it and I felt that’s fine, but is this inquiry going to be amongst the politicians or will it involve the actual people who went through what we’ve gone through. And I was given the opportunity of going either for the [Investigation Committee or the Confidential Committee]. And I thought, well I need to face up. I need to move on. I need to tell it how it was because no one believed me when I was younger. Will they believe me now? It is my opportunity to sort of say how it was. Also, the anger I feel because the Government who was in charge of my care failed me miserably. I hadn’t done anything wrong. I hadn’t committed a crime. So why? Why did they subject me to such degradation and humiliation? What’s done is done. It must never, ever, ever, ever be allowed to happen again’’. Later, at the end of her evidence, I asked the witness whether she thought it was a good thing for her to have had to address the emotional turmoil which she spoke of having experienced when the issue of institutional child abuse came to the fore in the media some years earlier, or whether she would have preferred if it had been forgotten. Her answer was as follows: ‘‘No, I did need to address it because, as I said before, when things crop up, smell, times of the year, there is a flicker of what has gone past and what you missed. Time, childhood that was taken away can never be returned. I have my own children and I have never been able to speak about it. I feel that now I have addressed it to you that, hopefully, I won’t be proved to be a liar, stupid. That I was entitled to a life and, even though it happened so long ago, those memories will always be with me. I won’t ever, I don’t think, forget them, even when time passes’’. The witness eloquently articulated the views of most of the witnesses (albeit the too few witnesses) whom the Committee has heard. In the report which follows, the Commission endeavours to explain to the witnesses and the public, in a fair and balanced manner, why, three and a half years after it was established on a statutory basis, it has not yet got answers for them or for the public to the questions which the Oireachtas posed in the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000. I wish my successor, Mr. Justice Sean Ryan, success, which has eluded me, in finding the answers and in publishing them in the future. Finally, I express my sincere gratitude to the members and staff of, and the civil servants seconded to, the Commission and to the members of its legal team, past and present, for all the help and encouragement I have received over the past four and a half years since the Commission was established on a non-statutory basis. Mary Laffoy Chairperson th December, 2003 CHAPTER The Commission: Establishment and Functions Establishment The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (the Commission) was established on 23rd May, 2000 pursuant to the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000 (the Act). On establishment the Commission consisted of a Chairperson and five ordinary members. Since establishment, the membership of the Commission has varied by resignations and the appointment of additional members. Details of the membership of the Commission since establishment are set out in Table A. The principal functions conferred on the Commission by the Act are: 1. to hear evidence of abuse from persons who allege they suffered abuse in childhood in institutions during the period from 1940 or earlier to the present day; 2. to conduct an inquiry into abuse of children in institutions during that period and, where satisfied that abuse occurred, to determine the causes, nature, circumstances and extent of such abuse; and 3. to prepare and publish reports on the results of the inquiry and on its recommendations in relation to dealing with the effects of such abuse. On establishment, the Commission was given two years in which to complete its work and report. However, the Act1 provided that that period might be extended by the Government. The Government has extended the period for a further three years up to nd May, 2005. In the year 2001, the Government conferred additional functions on the Commission. In broad terms, those functions were to conduct an inquiry into the circumstances, legality, conduct, ethical propriety and effects of specified vaccine trials which were conducted in institutions in 1960/1961, 1970 and 1973 and certain other trials conducted in institutions. The additional functions were conferred on the Commission by the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000 (Additional Functions) Order 2001 (S.I. No. 280 of 2001). The provisions of the Act have been amended by the Residential Institutions Redress Act 2002 (the Act of 2002). Section 5(5). The legislation and secondary legislation which now govern the Commission are summarised in Table B. The Act provides that the Commission and its Committees shall be independent in the performance of their functions.2 Pending legal challenges At the date of finalisation for publication of this Report two legal actions which affect the work of the Commission are pending in the High Court. Details of the legal actions are set out in Table C. Structure of the Commission The Act3 provides for the establishment of two committees of the Commission. They are: 1. the Confidential Committee and 2. the Investigation Committee. The Commission’s functions of hearing evidence of, and inquiring into, abuse are performed through the Confidential Committee or the Investigation Committee. Members of the Commission are assigned to one or other Committee. They cannot be members of both.4 The practical effect of the manner in which the Commission is structured by the Act is that a person who wishes to give evidence as to abuse which is within the remit of the Commission must choose to give evidence either to the Confidential Committee or to the Investigation Committee. If the choice is the Confidential Committee, subject to some very limited exceptions, the witness is guaranteed total confidentiality and his or her allegations are not investigated.5 If the choice is the Investigation Committee, the allegations are investigated and the hearing is conducted in accordance with fair procedures. The Commission’s understanding of its statutory mandate and the respective roles of the Commission and its two statutory committees were outlined in the Commission’s Opening Statement delivered at the first public sitting of the Commission held on 29th June, 2000.6 The additional functions conferred on the Commission in relation to vaccine trials are performed by a division of the Investigation Committee, which has adopted an investigative model similar to that of a tribunal of inquiry established under the Tribunal of Inquiry Acts 1921 to 2002. In this report, that division will be referred to as the Vaccine Trials Division. Reference in this Report to the Investigation Committee means the Investigation Committee performing the functions originally conferred on it by the Act. 2 Section 3(3). 3 Section 10. 4 Section 10(6). 5 Section 27. 6 The text of the Opening Statement is set out in Appendix A. Reporting Function It is a function of each Committee to prepare and furnish a report to the Commission. The report of the Confidential Committee is a report based on the evidence received by it setting out, in general terms, the findings made by it. The Act7 imposes certain strictures in relation to the reporting function of the Confidential Committee, in that it is provided that the report shall not— * identify, or contain information that could lead to the identification of witnesses, or the persons against whom they make allegations, or the institutions in which they allege they were abused, or o contain findings in relation to particular instances of alleged abuse. o The report of the Investigation Committee is a report of the results of its inquiry, specifying the determinations made by it in the course of the inquiry.8 The Act expressly permits the inclusion in the report of the Investigation Committee of— * findings that abuse of children, or abuse of children during a particular period, occurred in a particular institution, in which the institution and the person who committed the abuse are identified, and * findings in relation to the management, administration, operation, supervision and regulation, direct or indirect, of an identified institution and, as respects those functions, the persons in whom they were vested, who may be identified. The Investigation Committee is prohibited from including in its report findings in relation to particular instances of alleged abuse. The published report is the report of the Commission. As regards the functions of hearing evidence and conducting the inquiry, which functions are carried out through the Confidential Committee or the Investigation Committee, the published report is based on the reports submitted to the Commission by the Committees. Certain strictures are imposed by the Act9 in relation to the content of the Commission’s report. It is provided that it shall not— * identify, or contain information that could lead to the identification of, persons the subject of abuse in childhood, or * contain findings in relation to particular instances of alleged abuse. Further, insofar as it contains findings that are based on findings in a report of the Confidential Committee, there must be included a statement to the effect that the findings of the Commission are so based and that the evidence on which the findings of the Confidential Committee are based could not be tested or challenged by any person and, if it be the case, was not corroborated. 7 Section 16. 8 Section 13. 9 Section 5(3) and (4). Interim Reports The Act10 required the Commission to publish an interim report within one year of establishment and empowered it to publish other interim reports, if and whenever it would consider it appropriate to do so. While there is no requirement on the Commission to publish further interim reports, it has always been the intention of the Commission to publish to the general public interim reports at regular intervals. Two interim reports have been published: the first in May 200111 and the second in November 2001.12 The matters outlined in those reports form the backdrop to the events which have occurred since November 2001. The Act13 gives very little guidance as to the content of an interim report and merely provides that the Committee should report ‘‘on such matters relating to the inquiry . . . or otherwise relating to its functions as it may determine’’. The apparent broad scope of that discretion is cut down by the fundamental requirement that the Commission must conduct its inquiry and fulfil its functions in accordance with the principles of constitutional justice. In its first Interim Report,14 the Commission declared a policy of not making public any determination or findings until after the inquiry, or in the case of the inquiry conducted by the Investigation Committee, the first phase of the inquiry, had been completed, so as to avoid giving an inaccurate, incomplete or distorted picture of the prevalence of abuse, why it occurred and who was responsible for it and any consequential unfairness or injustice. The Commission had been in existence for one year when that policy was announced. Since then, another two and a half years have elapsed. In preparing this report, the Commission has considered the extent to which it is appropriate to modify the policy formulated in the first year of its existence. It has decided that, where it is in the public interest to publish determinations or findings at an interim stage in the inquiry and it is possible to do so without infringing the principles of natural and constitutional justice, it should do so. In formulating its approach to reporting on an interim basis, the Commission has had regard to the legislative history of the provisions of the Act in relation to interim reporting and has noted in particular the contributions which were made when a proposed amendment to provide for interim reporting was debated in the Oireachtas Committee on Education and Science on 30th March, 2000.15 It is the intention of the Commission that this Report shall contain as much information as can be given without compromising the integrity of its work in the future in relation to— * what has been done to date, * the processes of the Committees and the Vaccine Trials Division, and * what remains to be done. 10 Section 5(6). 11 The text of the first Interim Report is set out in Appendix B. 12 The text of the second Interim Report is set out in Appendix C. 13 Section 5(6). 14 Appendix B. 15 Proceedings of 30th March, 2000. The Structure of this Report This Report is arranged as follows: The Commission • Chapters 1 to 4 inclusive deal with matters which concern the Commission and, in particular, resources and administration. The Confidential Committee • The content of chapter 5 is based on the third Interim Report of the Confidential Committee, which has been adopted by the Commission. As is outlined later,16 the Confidential Committee has heard all of the witnesses who have proffered evidence to it in relation to their experiences in institutions prior to 1960 and has prepared a report based on that evidence in accordance with the Act.17 Having taken legal advice from its leading counsel, Frank Clarke, S.C., the Commission has decided that it would be inappropriate to publish findings of the Confidential Committee at a time when, because of the absence of a sufficient body of evidence, it is not in a position to publish the findings of the Investigation Committee in relation to the same period. The Investigation Committee • The content of chapters 6 to 13 inclusive is based on the third Interim Report of the Investigation Committee, which has been adopted by the Commission. Reference to ‘‘the Committee’’ in those chapters means the Investigation Committee. The Vaccine Trials Division • The content of chapter 14 is based on the first Interim Report of the Vaccine Trials Division which has been adopted by the Commission. Reference in this Report to ‘‘the Minister’’18 means the Minister for Education and Science and reference to ‘‘the Department’’ means the Department of Education and Science. Effective date This report was passed for publication by the Commission on 12th December 2003. It records matters in relation to the performance of the Commission’s functions up to and including that day. TABLE A Members of the Commission TABLE B Legislation and Secondary Legislation Governing the Commission Acts TABLE C Pending Legal Challenges CHAPTER The Commission from Establishment to the Present Introduction The primary focus of this chapter is the relationship of the Commission with the Government and with the Minister for Education and Science and his Department. In effect, the Department of Education and Science is the Commission’s sponsoring Department. The Commission is funded through a sub-head in the Vote of the Department. Milestones in the life of the Commission from its establishment to the publication of the second interim report During the first eighteen months of its existence, due primarily to factors outside its control, the Commission’s ability to advance fulfilment of its statutory mandate was hindered, as the following outline of the major events which occurred illustrates: First public sitting • The first public sitting of the Commission was held on 29th June, 2000. The Opening Statement19 was delivered. Members of the public affected by the work of the Commission were invited to raise by way of submission any matter requiring clarity or determination at the second public sitting, which was scheduled for 20th July, 2000. Second public sitting • Various legal and procedural matters, of which notice had been received by the Commission, were dealt with at the second public sitting, which was held on the scheduled date, 20th July, 2000.20 The submission which has had the most significant impact on the work of the Commission was made on behalf of a number of solicitors throughout the country who represented the interests of many potential witnesses in the Commission’s processes, who have come to be commonly known as ‘‘the Survivors’ Solicitors’’. Essentially, the case made in the submission was that the Commission should issue an interim report calling on the Government to provide ‘‘an appropriate scheme of compensation to survivors in respect of their losses’’. Until such time as the issue of such a scheme of compensation was satisfactorily addressed, it was contended 19 Appendix A. 20 A transcript of the hearing is posted on the Commission’s website. that it would be difficult for individual solicitors to advise their clients as to whether participation in the work of the Commission was in their personal or legal interests. The significance of the issue raised in the submission was acknowledged by the Commission, which adjourned the public sitting to enable it to consider the submission and convey the message contained in it to the Government. It was hoped that the public sitting could be resumed before the end of August, 2000. Resumption of second public sitting • By letter of 26th July, 2000, the Commission informed the Minister of the submission, making it clear that the Commission was not expressing any view, either positive or negative, on the merits of the arguments put forward in the submission. However, the Minister was informed that the matters raised by the Survivors’ Solicitors represented potentially a significant barrier to the effective conduct of the business of the Commission. The Commission made a suggestion as to how that barrier might be removed: by the Government committing in principle to the establishment of an appropriate body to deal with compensation issues and the Commission making recommendations on the modalities of the compensation scheme after the completion of Phase I21 of the work of the Investigation Committee. The Commission sought an early indication of the Government’s position on the issues raised. The Commission did not get a response as promptly as had been expected. The second public sitting was resumed on 26th September, 200022 and, at that hearing, the Commission apprised the public of the then current position. Announcement of compensation scheme • On 3rd October, 2000 the Minister announced that the Government had agreed in principle to establish a body to compensate people who, as children, were victims of abuse while in the care of institutions in which they were resident and in respect of which State bodies had regulatory or supervisory functions. Compensation would be paid on an ex gratia basis. Issues concerning the establishment, funding and operation of the compensation body would be the subject of a further decision in the near future. The decision of the Government agreeing the proposals for the compensation scheme was the subject of a public announcement made by the Minister on 27th February, 2001, setting out the main elements of the scheme. Under the proposals, there was to be no direct interface between the proposed compensation scheme and the work of the Commission. The Residential Institutions Redress Bill 2001, the purpose of which was to give effect to the proposals for the compensation or redress scheme, was introduced on the 11th June, 2001. However, neither the announcement of the compensation scheme nor the introduction of the Bill removed the barrier to full participation by the Survivors’ Solicitors in the work of the Commission. In correspondence with the Commission in July 2001, the Survivors’ Solicitors advised the Commission that the point had not arrived whereby the solicitors could with confidence advise their clients in relation to the work of the Commission for the reasons set out: the exclusion from the terms of the Bill of substantial categories of childhood victims and concerns relating to the mode of assessment of compensation 21 See Opening Statement in which the two phase nature of the work of the Investigation Committee was explained. 22 A transcript of the hearing is posted on the Commission’s website. provided for. The Survivors’ Solicitors’ views were conveyed to the Minister. That was the situation which prevailed when the second Interim Report was published. Costs of legal representation • At the second public sitting on 20th July, 2000, the Commission ruled on entitlement to legal representation before the Investigation Committee and the provision for the costs of such representation. Under the ruling, any person appearing before the Investigation Committee during Phase 1 of its work, whether as a complainant or as a respondent,23 would be allowed legal representation by a solicitor and a barrister of his or her choice. The expenses of that legal representation would be defrayed in accordance with a scheme to be made by the Minister under the Act. As originally enacted, the Act24 empowered the Minister to make a scheme for the payment of witnesses’ expenses and the expenses of legal representation. On the day following the second public sitting, the Commission formally advised the Minister of the rulings it had made in relation to legal representation and called on him to make the scheme. It was not until 9th May, 2001 that a scheme25 providing for the costs of legal representation at the Phase 1 hearings of the Investigation Committee, which the Commission considered workable, was made by the Minister. While the Commission was satisfied with, and was prepared to operate, the scheme, it did not find favour with solicitors involved or likely to be involved in the process, including the Survivors’ Solicitors. In the correspondence in July 2001, the Survivors’ Solicitors had expressed dissatisfaction with the scheme, describing it as ‘‘seriously flawed’’. Prior to the publication of the second Interim Report in November, 2001, the Commission was informed that the Minister was agreeable in principle to the taxation of the costs of legal representation at both phases of the work of the Investigation Committee and proposed to amend the Act to so provide. Volume of complaints • The fact that the compensation and legal costs issues raised by the Survivors’ Solicitors were not being resolved to their satisfaction adversely impacted on the volume of requests to give evidence which the Commission received during the first year of its existence. By 30th April, 2001, one thousand two hundred and thirty-eight (1,238) potential witnesses had submitted requests to be heard, of whom five hundred and twenty-four (524) had chosen the Investigation Committee and the remainder, seven 23 The terminology used by the Commission to distinguish parties involved in the process of the Investigation Committee in different capacities is as follows: * ‘‘complainant’’ refers to a person alleging that he or she was abused. * ‘‘respondent’’ refers to a person or body against whom the Complainant alleges abuse being— * an ‘‘individual respondent’’, i.e. a person who is alleged to have committed the abuse, * a ‘‘management respondent’’, i.e. the person or body in charge of the management of the institution in which the abuse is alleged to have occurred at the relevant time, or * a ‘‘regulatory respondent’’, i.e. the person or body charged with regulatory responsibility, whether under statute or otherwise, for the institution in which abuse is alleged to have occurred (usually a Department of State or a public or local authority, such as a Health Board) at the relevant time. 24 Section 20. 25 The text of the Scheme is set out in Table R. hundred and fourteen (714), the Confidential Committee. At the end of May 2001, contemporaneous with the publication of the first Interim Report, the Commission imposed a final date for submission of requests to participate in the Commission’s inquiry. The deadline was 31st July, 2001. Imposition of the deadline resulted in a very substantial increase in the volume of complaints. At the time of the publication of the second Interim Report, the total number of requests before the Commission was three thousand, one hundred and forty-nine (3,149), of which one thousand, one hundred and ninety-two (1,192) related to the Confidential Committee and the balance, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven (1,957), to the Investigation Committee. Substantive work — the Confidential Committee • The Confidential Committee commenced hearings in September 2000. By the end of November 2001, 254 hearings had been concluded. Substantive work — the Investigation Committee • In accordance with the provisions of the Act,26 hearings of the Investigation Committee are preceded by a preliminary inquiry carried out by an Inquiry Officer. Two Inquiry Officers were appointed at the beginning of December 2000 and commenced preliminary investigations. As of 30th April, 2001, no preliminary inquiry had been finalised. By November 2001, the Investigation Committee had only been able to schedule five cases for hearing. In many cases, the preliminary inquiry was being stalled at the first stage in the process, the submission of the complainant’s statement, because of the attitude of his or her solicitor in relation to the compensation and legal costs issues. Predictions in November 2001 as to completion of the work of the Commission In the second Interim Report, the Commission predicted that it would take until June 2004 to afford hearings to all witnesses who had chosen the Confidential Committee. The Commission was unable to predict with any degree of accuracy how long it would take to afford hearings to the witnesses who had chosen the Investigation Committee for a number of reasons: difficulty in determining the length of the preliminary inquiries; difficulty in predicting the number of cases which would proceed to a hearing; and difficulty in assessing the length of each hearing, because of the varying degree of complexity of the complaints. However, the view of the Commission was that, irrespective of the volume and complexity of the cases which the Investigation Committee would ultimately have to deal with, Phase 1 of the work of the Investigation Committee should be completed around the same time as the projected completion of the work of the Confidential Committee, around June 2004. It was considered that any extension of Phase 1 beyond that date could not be regarded as completion of Phase 1 with reasonable expedition. On the assumption that Phase 1 would be completed around June 2004, it was anticipated that Phase 2 would not commence before 2005, the consequence of which was that the Commission would not be in a position to publish its final report until some time in the year 2005 at the earliest. Section 23. It was the Commission’s view in November 2001, and it so stated in the second Interim Report, that the necessary resources in terms of personnel, administrative support and legal advisors would have to be made available to the Investigation Committee to enable it to complete Phase 1 with reasonable expedition, which the Commission considered to be the middle of 2004 at the outside. The Commission has not at any time countenanced a scenario in which the work of the Investigation Committee would continue for ten or eleven years as being a viable proposition or as representing a proper fulfilment of its statutory mandate, although it has recognised, and has informed the Minister, that such would be the likely duration of its work, if it was constrained to do its work as constituted in November 2001 and as now constituted. Progress from November 2001 to June 2002 Prior to the publication of the second Interim Report, the Commission had taken steps to ensure that it would be in a position to complete its work within a reasonable timeframe. Considerable progress was made in the period from November 2001 to June 2002 and at the end of that period the Commission’s objective seemed achievable, although the timescale was revised. The major events during the period were: Divisionalisation of the Investigation Committee • Prior to the publication of the second Interim Report, the Commission had notified the Department of its view that, if the Commission were to complete its work within a reasonable timeframe, it would be necessary that two or three divisions of the Investigation Committee should sit contemporaneously. It was suggested that, as an alternative to appointing an additional number of ordinary members, consideration might be given to establishing a panel of persons with suitable professional qualifications and expertise, for example, in law, medicine, psychiatry, psychology and social work, from which a person could be selected to sit with a member of the Investigation Committee to hear evidence and make findings of fact on the evidence. It was the view of the Commission that an amendment to the Act would be necessary to give effect to the proposal. The Commission requested that consideration be given to enacting the enabling provision at the earliest possible opportunity. The Commission’s suggestion was taken on board. A provision was included in the Act of 2002,27 which amended the Act by the insertion of a new section28 which provided for the appointment of ‘‘Deciding Officers’’ and enabled the inclusion of a Deciding Officer in a division of the Investigation Committee, in respect of which he or she would exercise the functions of a member of the division. Extension of Commission’s remit • In the second Interim Report, the Commission indicated that it would be seeking an extension of the period for completion of its work for three years from the expiry of its existing remit, that is to say, for a further three years from 23rd May, 2002. On 17th April, 2002, an extension was granted to 22nd May, 2005 by Government Order.29 27 Section 32. 28 Section 23A. 29 Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse Act 2000 (Section 5) (Specified Period) Order 2002. Compensation issue • The compensation issue was resolved by the enactment of the Act of 2002 on 10th April, 2002. Legal costs issue • There was included in the Act of 200230 a provision which amended the provisions in the Act31 in relation to payment by the Commission of the costs of legal representation. The amendment provides that the costs of legal representation before the Investigation Committee which are allowed to a party shall be subject to taxation by a Taxing Master of the High Court in default of agreement. Deadline for Complainants’ statements • By the end of March 2002, less than one-third of the potential witnesses who had submitted requests to testify to the Investigation Committee had submitted statements of their proposed evidence in compliance with a request from an Inquiry Officer in accordance with the Act.32 At the end of March 2002, when it was apparent that the resolution of the compensation and legal costs issues by virtue of the enactment of the Bill, which became the Act of 2002, was imminent, the Investigation Committee imposed a final date for the provision of Complainants’ statements. The deadline was th June, 2002. When the deadline expired, complainant statements had been provided in respect of approximately 1,800 complaints. Request for additional resources • In anticipation of the expiry of the deadline for submission of Complainants’ statements, on 10th June, 2002 the Commission submitted a request for additional resources to enable it to carry out its statutory functions within the time period allowed by the Oireachtas. In submitting the request, the Commission stressed that what was being sought was the minimal requirement to enable the Investigation Committee to conduct its inquiry through three divisions. Response to request for additional resources — June to December 2002 In recording the interaction of the Minister and his Department with the Commission in the period between the beginning of June 2002, when the Commission submitted its request for additional resources, and September 2003, when the Minister publicly announced a second review of the Commission’s remit, it is necessary to refer to the contents of correspondence and statements. Lest the references give an incomplete, inaccurate or distorted account, the letters which it is considered are of seminal importance in defining the relationship between the Commission and its sponsoring Department, and the relevant statements are set out in their entirety in Appendix D. Of the published letters, those which emanated from the Commission represent only a portion of the 30 Section 32. 31 Section 20 (for which sections 20 and 20A were substituted). 32 Section 23. correspondence from the Commission in which the needs of the Commission, the urgency of meeting those needs and the consequences of failing to do so were urged. In addition, during the period between June 2002 and September 2003 the following meetings took place with a view to advancing matters: * A meeting held on 4th November, 2002 attended by the Minister and his officials and the Chairperson and another member of the Commission. * A meeting held on 9th May, 2003 attended by the Minister, the Attorney General and the Chairperson of the Commission. * A meeting held on 15th July, 2003 attended by the Minister, the Attorney General and the Chairperson of the Commission and Counsel to the Commission. The earliest intimation which the Commission had that it might not get a prompt response to its request for additional resources was contained in a letter dated 21st August, 200233 from the Department in which it was informed that the matter was to go to Government. The Government was to be apprised of, in addition to the resourcing needs of the Commission, any associated implications for the resourcing of the Department, the cost of legal representation and the duration of the Commission’s work. In the letter it was intimated that the Department would like to advise the Government of the likely duration of the Commission’s work. Throughout the period from June to December 2002, the Commission responded promptly to all requests for information from the Department. In response to the letter of 21st August, 2002, the Department was informed of the difficulties of predicting the duration of the work of the Commission. However, it was made clear that the Commission was working towards the completion of its work within the extended timeframe given to it by the Oireachtas, i.e. by 23rd May, 2005. The Department was informed that because of the nature of the Commission’s work and the age profile of the many people affected by it, the Commission considered that it was imperative that the work of the Commission should be completed within a reasonable timeframe. Following further correspondence and discussions, including discussions between the Commission’s legal team and the Department’s legal team, on 2nd October, 2002,34 the Secretary General of the Department wrote to the Commission indicating that the Minister intended to seek the views of his Cabinet colleagues on the issue of additional resources within the following few weeks. It was pointed out that examination of the additional requirements provided an opportunity for the Government to consider more generally the work of the Commission and the expected costs and time scale associated with completing the work. The Commission was asked to confirm the Commission’s understanding of these issues and, in particular, the Department’s understanding that— * the Commission would be in a position to furnish its Report in mid to late 2007, and * a reasonable assumption was that legal costs alone could reach approximately \200 million. 33 In Appendix D. 34 In Appendix D. The Commission responded by letter dated 3rd October, 2002,35 in which it reiterated the urgent necessity for a decision on the Commission’s requests for additional resources, without which the Commission simply could not do what it had been mandated by the Oireachtas to do. Having outlined the necessity for divisionalisation of the work of the Investigation Committee, the Commission indicated that it was aiming to complete Phase 1 by July 2005. In its view any prolongation of Phase 1 beyond the middle of 2005 threatened the ability of the Investigation Committee to complete its work and the proper fulfilment of the Commission’s mandate. It was acknowledged that it was unlikely that it would be able to publish a report before mid 2007. On the question of legal costs, the Commission could neither agree with nor dispute the Department’s estimate of the overall cost which the Exchequer would have to bear for taxed costs of legal representation. It was pointed out that the increase in the overall cost of the Commission was a direct result of the introduction of the provision for taxation of costs of legal representation in the Act of 2002. Around this time, in October 2002, the Commission was contemplating the publication of an Interim Report. In its letter of 3rd October, 2002, the Commission informed the Department that, as it had not reported since November 2001, it was anxious to publish a further Interim Report apprising the public of the then current state of the performance of its statutory remit and its predictions as to the future course of its work as soon as possible and, in any event, no later than November 2002. That did not prove possible, because the issue of additional resources remained unresolved. The decision of the Government on the Commission’s request for additional resources, which was made on 3rd December, 2002, was communicated to the Commission by letter dated 5th December, 200236 from the Minister. In the intervening period since 3rd October, 2002, there had been considerable correspondence and contact between the Commission and the Department, and between the Commission and its legal team and the Attorney General and his officials. In its final request for information, in a letter dated 26th November, 2002, the Department asked the Commission to furnish clarification— ‘‘. . . regarding the comparison between the Commission continuing as presently constituted and staffed, how many hearings could be finalised in a year, how long Phase 1 would take, etc. and the same information should the Investigation Committee work in four divisions?’’ The Commission furnished the information and clarification sought in a Memorandum dated 29th November, 2002.37 The Commission’s conclusion was that it would not be possible for the Investigation Committee, as then constituted, and with the level of staff and legal personnel by which it was then supported, to properly fulfil its statutory remit. It was made clear that such a scenario, in which it was envisaged that it could take between seven and ten years from the commencement of the year 2003 to complete Phase 1 of its work, was considered not to be a viable option. That view had already been expressed publicly in the Final Ruling of the Investigation Committee on the Procedural Hearing on 35 In Appendix D. 36 In Appendix D. 37 In Appendix D. lapse of time and allied issues which was issued on 18th October, 2002.38 In the ruling, the Committee dealt with a letter which it had received on 8th October, 2002 from a firm of solicitors acting for one of the Congregations which had participated in the Procedural Hearing, requesting the referral of the issues of prejudice caused by lapse of time to the High Court under section 25 of the Act. In the letter, the solicitors had stated that they had been made aware that the Investigation Committee was taking the view that its proceedings could take up to ten years, because of the total number of statements of complaint received by it. In the ruling,39 the Committee refused the request for a referral to the High Court and stated as follows: ‘‘This Committee wishes to make it clear that it does not take the view that its proceedings could take up to ten years. It is the view of this Committee that it must conclude its inquiry within a reasonable timeframe. It has sought additional resources from the Minister for Education and Science to enable it to do so’’. While the Commission was anxious to publish an Interim Report in November 2002, as had been indicated in the correspondence with the Department, it decided that there was little point in doing so as, in the absence of a decision on its request for additional resources, it was not in a position to indicate to the public in realistic terms and with any degree of certainty its capacity to fulfil its mandate. The letter of 5th December, 2002 conveying the Government’s decision magnified the uncertainty. It recorded that the Government had ‘‘agreed in principle to the provision of the additional resources as requested’’. However, it enjoined the Commission to proceed with the process of filling new posts ‘‘in a gradual fashion’’. It also disclosed that the Government had directed ‘‘a review of the terms of reference of the Commission’’ which was to be completed by mid-February 2003. It was pointed out that any changes to the mandate of the Commission occasioned by the review might be reflected in the final amount of additional resources provided for the Commission, with adjustments being made at the end of February 2003. That being the case, the Commission was enjoined to consider the appointment of any additional staff on a short contract basis to allow for revised staffing levels when the review was completed. The coupling of the agreement in principle to provide the additional resources with the outcome of the review, which was interpreted, correctly as it transpired, as being confined to the Investigation Committee, was seen by the Investigation Committee as putting it in an impossible position. The agreement in principle to provide the resources, conditioned as it was, seemed to amount in substance to a refusal of the request for additional resources pending the outcome of the review. Moreover, it seemed that the contemplated outcome of the review was a reduction in the remit of the Commission. The decision created a real dilemma for the Investigation Committee. On the one hand, if it was to continue to operate within its existing remit, it would incur expense and place burdens on third parties by requiring compliance with existing statutory obligations which might turn out to have been incurred and imposed in relation to matters which would cease to be within the Commission’s remit as a result of the review, leaving it open to legitimate criticism that it had imposed an unnecessary burden on the Exchequer and on third parties. On the other hand, the Investigation Committee was bound by its existing 38 The Ruling is posted on the Commission’s website. 39 Paragraph 12.4. statutory remit. If it did not continue to fulfil that remit, it left itself open to legitimate criticism that it was in breach of its statutory duty and possible exposure to an accusation analogous to prosecutorial delay. The concerns of the Investigation Committee were outlined in a letter of 6th December, 200240 from the Chairperson to the Department. A possible resolution of the extreme difficulties in which the Investigation Committee had been placed as a result of the Government decision was suggested: that legislation be introduced which would permit the Investigation Committee to suspend its work until the review was completed and any alterations to its mandate brought into force by legislation. The Investigation Committee was concerned, and the concern was expressed in the letter that, on the basis of its experience, the timeframe for completion of the review envisaged in the Government Decision might not be met. The Department’s response was contained in a letter of 13th December, 200241 from the Secretary General. In that letter, the Commission was informed that the review was confined to the Investigation Committee and that its purpose was to achieve a situation of the Commission not being required to conduct an investigation in relation to every allegation of abuse. Consideration was to be given to a legislative amendment which would enable findings, at least in relation to residential institutions, to be predicated on a statistically valid sample of allegations. The Commission was also informed that it was clear to the Department that any change in the remit of the Investigation Committee which would emerge from the review could only be effected through amending legislation. The Commission was told that— * it was not a legal option to suspend the work of the Investigation Committee without legislation, * legislation would not be introduced, although, if the review process should become protracted, legislation enabling suspension could be considered and the position could be reviewed in January 2003, and * the Investigation Committee should proceed to take whatever steps it considered appropriate so as to operate within its existing remit. On 20th December, 2002,42 the Minister issued a press statement announcing the review, which was expected to be concluded in February 2003. It was also announced that, pending the implementation of the recommendations of the review, the Commission would continue to operate under its existing remit. The Review of Mandate — January to July 2003 The decision of the Government envisaged that the review, which was to be led by the Attorney General, would involve a consultation process with the Commission. The Commission participated in the consultation process and cooperated with the Attorney General and the review body (the Review) in the belief that changes could be introduced which would enable the Commission to complete its inquiry in a more timely, efficient 40 In Appendix D. 41 In Appendix D. 42 In Appendix D. and cost-effective manner than would be possible in the absence of such changes. The Commission also believed that the Attorney General should have the benefit of its experience. The consultation process involved: * meetings of members of the Commission with their legal advisors and the Attorney General and his officials, * meetings between the Commission’s legal team and the Attorney General and his officials, and * formal submissions. Before making any formal submission, the Commission had been informed by the Attorney General of the then current thinking of the Review: that the way forward was to grant a power of choice or selection of the type of cases which would proceed to a full hearing. It was the understanding of the Commission that the concept of ‘‘sampling’’ predicated on a statistically valid sample of allegations, which had been mooted in the Department’s letter of 13th December, 2002, was abandoned. The Commission made two formal submissions to the Review: * A paper entitled ‘‘Position of Commission in relation to Government Review’’,43 which was furnished to the Attorney General on 29th January, 2003, and * A paper entitled ‘‘Possible Approach to Selection of Complainant Evidence’’, which was originally furnished to the Attorney General on 12th February, 2003 and was resubmitted on 4th March, 200344 with certain statistical data deleted. On the basis of its awareness of the then current thinking of the Review, the Commission identified the core issues to be addressed as: 1. the manner of selection of complainant evidence, and 2. how complainants whose evidence was not selected might be accommodated in the process of the Investigation Committee. On the first issue, it was the view of the Commission that the selection criteria should be statute based. The formulation of the precise criteria was fundamentally a matter of policy to be determined by the Government subject to the approval of the Oireachtas, although the Commission offered to consider any criteria which might be under consideration with a view to assisting the Review as to the likely effect of the adoption of the proposed criteria on the scale of the inquiry which would be required to be conducted. On the second issue, the Commission acknowledged that there would be a difficulty in involving complainants whose evidence had not been selected in accordance with the criteria in the process. It admitted to not having a ready solution to the difficulty but indicated a willingness to consider any proposals which the Review should come up with. The Commission submitted its second paper following a meeting with the Attorney General and his officials at which a proposal was presented by the Attorney General which the Commission considered to be both unworkable and likely to be subject to legal 43 The text of the Paper is set out in Appendix E. 44 The text of the Paper is set out in Appendix E. challenge. In an effort to resolve the impasse, in its second paper, the Commission suggested an approach to formulating selection criteria. The approach suggested involved identifying criteria which satisfied what was considered to be the fundamental test: enabling the Commission to ascertain the true and full facts in relation to the matters being inquired into. It also involved distinguishing between the various types of abuse encompassed in the definition of ‘‘abuse’’ in the Act,45 and having regard to the characteristics of each in formulating the criteria. It was also indicated that the Commission did not see any way of involving Complainants whose evidence was not selected by reference to the adopted criteria in the process of the Investigation Committee. In summary, the position adopted by the Commission in the course of the consultation process was that the core issues were matters of policy for the Government. If there was a policy decision that every complainant was not to have an entitlement to be heard by the Investigation Committee, the criteria for selection of complainant evidence should be fixed by statute. Complainants whose evidence was not selected by reference to the statutory criteria could have no further involvement in the process of the Investigation Committee, although they would be entitled to recount their experiences to the Confidential Committee. The effect of the enactment of such a policy would be that— * an entitlement or right to be heard would only arise in relation to the Confidential Committee, which would continue to perform the Commission’s listening function as mandated by the Act,46 in a sympathetic and understanding atmosphere and as informally as possible, bearing in mind the need of persons who have suffered abuse in childhood to recount to others such abuse, their difficulties in so doing and the potential beneficial effect of so doing and * in fulfilling its investigative function, the Investigation Committee would select evidence in accordance with statute based objective criteria. Taking into account the procedural changes which the Commission understood the Review to have in contemplation, which it was anticipated would result in a more effective and focused inquiry, provided the selection criteria were not unduly prescriptive, the Commission considered that the implementation of such policy would enable it to complete its work within a reasonable timeframe. That remains the Commission’s position. It is the Commission’s understanding that the Report of the Review was brought by the Minister to Government on 4th March, 2003. In view of the timescale imposed by the Government in its decision and the assurances which the Commission had been given in the letter of 13th December, 2002 that the review itself, and any legislation arising from it, would be treated as a matter of priority, the Commission became concerned when the outcome of the review had not been published by the end of March 2003. The Commission’s concerns were conveyed to the Minister in a letter dated 25th March, 2003,47 in which the Commission emphasised the need to bring closure for victims of childhood abuse. 45 Section 1(1). 46 Section 4(6). 47 In Appendix D. The Commission’s concerns were aggravated when, on 9th April, 2003, in response to a notification to the Secretary General of the Department that the Commission intended to appoint two junior counsel on terms which required the junior counsel concerned to give a commitment to exclusive attention to the work of the Commission for a period of not less than eighteen months, the Commission received a response which contained the following statement: ‘‘Pending the outcome of the review process, it is clearly difficult to identify the precise resource requirements needed by the Commission. In such circumstances it is suggested that the Commission consider a provision which would allow for it to foreshorten the length of the appointment or a provision for regular review of the contract . . .’’ That statement provoked a further letter of 10th April, 200348 from the Commission to the Minister, in which the Commission sought, by 29th April following, the Department’s ‘‘best estimate’’ of— 1. when the outcome of the Review would be published, and 2. the timescale for enacting any consequential amending legislation. The Minister’s response to the Commission’s letter of 25th March, 2003 was contained in a letter dated 17th April, 2003.49 In that letter, the Minister confirmed that the Report on the Review had been brought to Government on 4th March, 2003 and that Heads of a Bill were presented to the Government on 4th April, 2003. The Government had approved the draft Heads of a Bill and the legislation was being drafted. The Minister pointed out that the publication of the review was ‘‘a matter of political judgement for the Government’’. The Government had decided that it would publish the review with the Bill; that decision was a ‘‘political decision’’ that had ‘‘been properly made’’ by the Government. The two specific questions raised by the Commission in its letter of 10th April, 2003,which had not reached the Minister before he issued his letter of 17th April, 2003, were dealt with in a letter dated 25th April, 200350 from the Minister. The Minister’s response was as follows: 1. The Government, at its meeting on 4th April, 2003, had decided that the review would be published with the Bill. 2. It was not possible for the Minister to give a commitment to an exact timescale to the bringing forward or enactment of amending legislation. However, every effort would be made ‘‘to ensure that any proposed legislation would be brought to the Houses of the Oireachtas before the Summer break’’. No legislation to amend the Act was brought to the Houses of the Oireachtas on foot of the review, although a Bill entitled ‘‘Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (Amendment) Bill’’, was listed in the Government Legislation Programme for the Da´il session commencing on 7th May, 2003. The Bill, which was described as a Bill ‘‘to make some technical amendments to the principal Act to allow for more effective and efficient 48 In Appendix D. 49 In Appendix D. 50 In Appendix D. operation of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse’’ was listed in Section A. That section listed bills which the Government expected ‘‘to publish from the start of the Da´il session up to the Summer Recess 2003’’. Following receipt of the letter of 13th December, 2002 from the Secretary General of the Department, the Commission sought sanction for the elements of its request for additional resources which it required immediately, taking into account the terms of the Government decision of 3rd December, 2002. Sanction was immediately granted for the appointment of six barristers. Appointments were made on foot of that sanction in March and April 2003. The other elements sought were never sanctioned, despite an assurance given by the Secretary General of the Department at the end of April 2003 that the matters were being urgently considered and that a meeting had been arranged with the Department of Finance with a view to progressing them. Through May and June 2003, the Commission continued to endeavour to fulfil its existing mandate in the difficult circumstances prevailing — against a background of knowledge that its mandate was going to be altered to an extent that necessitated legislation to give effect to the changes, but that no assurance could be given as to when the changes would be passed into law. There were fundamental concerns about the potential for damage to the process and the potential for harm to the persons caught up in the process, arising from the prolongation of uncertainty as to the task which the Commission would ultimately be required to perform by the Oireachtas. Apart from those concerns, the principal consideration which weighed heavily with the Commission at this time was the cost implications of its uncertain status, which had been forecast in the letter of 6th December, 2002 to the Department. While the Commission was in a position to control its internal costs to some extent, given the uncertainty as to its ultimate task, it could not be confident at that time that it was using its resources in the most efficient and productive manner. The Minister was kept fully apprised of the cost implications of the hiatus in which the Commission found itself, both in relation to its internal costs and the legal costs which were accruing externally. The Commission specifically apprised the Minister of its fear that it might be unwittingly wasting public money. Review — second phase By letter dated 4th July, 2003,51 the Minister informed the Commission that— * it had been decided to engage in a further review of the operations of the Commission, * the second phase of the review was ongoing, * it was likely to result in more substantial changes to that envisaged in the first review, and * the Government considered it appropriate that, before the second phase of the review was completed, it should be in receipt of the judgment of the High Court or, in the event of an appeal, the judgment of the Supreme Court in the Christian Brothers’ Proceedings.52 51 In Appendix D. 52 See Table C. The Minister sought certain information from the Commission ‘‘in the form of a report’’. Adverting to the fact that, while the review was ongoing, costs were continuing to be incurred, the Minister stated that it was manifestly in the public interest that costs should not continue to be incurred in respect of matters that might not ultimately be investigated. It was suggested that the Commission might wish to take account of the public interest — in the context of the second phase of the review — in the manner in which it ordered its procedures. Prior to responding to the Minister’s letter, the Commission obtained the advice of its leading Counsel, Frank Clarke S.C., as to the propriety of the Investigation Committee exercising its statuto
Edit Links2003-00-00 We are writing to you to bring your attention to a grave injustice and abuse of power that is currently occurring within the Page: 1



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Edit Links2003-00-00 We are writing to you to bring your attention to a grave injustice and abuse of power that is currently occurring within the Page: 2



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Edit Links2002-09-28 Pell's Hell

Among the charges was the claim that Dr. Pell, seen as hardline and arch-conservative would drag the Sydney church back to the Middle Ages



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Dr Pell offered hush money to victims of sexual abuse by other priests ... Then came the bombshell which has reverberated all the way to the Vatican -- allegations that as a trainee priest Dr Pell sexually molested a bot at a Victorian holiday camp more than 40 years ago
Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 1

Total projected outlays represent the sum of $2,666 per victim in the first year and $7,998 per victim over three years. This amount can hardly be considered as excessive. Nor could it realistically be more than any proposed "recognition" payment.

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 2

Total projected outlays represent the sum of $2,666 per victim in the first year and $7,998 per victim over three years. This amount can hardly be considered as excessive. Nor could it realistically be more than any proposed "recognition" payment.

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 1

Prepared by Bruce Beckett CEO of HASSN Inc. in Association with Members

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Australia,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,IFAdXcZupG,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,LBURVTYkif,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,okOjdzMU,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,



Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 2

There is little or no opportunity for client input to policy development or distribution of funds. There does not appear to be any transparency of accounts and certain decisions have not been focused at this community.

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 3

Development and training support mechanisms to further assist members and their children in employment opportunities using current Training organisations, ours and Supporter (Associate) members networks

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It is particularly important that members in regional areas gain a sense of inclusion from this process as a counter to the exclusion and disengagement from society that their early life experience has inflicted on them.

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 5

Education Life Skills Social support Counselling Family Tracing and Reunification Small Business Support Medical/Funeral arrangements Research for files and History Outreach Service Legal advice

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Australia,Canada,Criminal Activity,Death,General,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,Neerkol,Neglect,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,Suspicious Activity,Vaccination,VOLPMnWXGnTr,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,



Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 6

Proposed Organisational Structure

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 7

Priority Access Projects

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 8

Projected expenditure

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 9

HASSN Inc has no ties binding it to any religious or ethnis group, it is a truly multicultural, multidenominational & multifaceted peer support group dedicated to achieve the right outcomes for their community and to assist other disadvantaged people who have been subjected to similar incongruous treatment and marginalised because of it.

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 10

The development of HASSN Inc arose from the failure of various organisations structured with the best of intent to deal with the healing process of innocent people who through no fault of their own making became victims of abuse in Institutions and Homes to which they were sent

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.)

Introduction

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Edit Links2002-09-18 Historical Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc. (HASSN Inc.) Page: 01

Introduction

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Edit Links2002-08-29 Beattie blasted over nuns scandal

Lawyer blast Beattie government for its failure to address abuses



Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,CErFStBLEAULjV,Criminal Activity,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,qHKBapjwYjPl,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,Suspicious Activity,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,



Edit Links2002-06-26 Sleight of hand on child welfare

Government credibility questioned - smoke and mirrors by government



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Edit Links2002-06-06 THE IMPACT OF JUDICIAL REVIEW ON TRIBUNALS - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS [External Link]

5TH ANNUAL AIJA TRIBUNALS CONFERENCE Melbourne, 6-7 June 2002 THE IMPACT OF JUDICIAL REVIEW ON TRIBUNALS - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS By Robin Creyke*



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Edit Links2002-04-18 Frayed bond of trust needs leadership (Hollingworth)

Frayed bond of trust needs leadership (Hollingworth)



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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 1

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc

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Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,UYhyIUvYAR,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 2

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Members

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 3

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Application, admission & rejection of members

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 4

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Associate member Life Member

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 5

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc End of membership Register of members

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aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bnKkIcTmQMQr,Canada,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,IFAdXcZupG,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,PvMoGMfCpa,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,UctCEBEwqRI,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,wpdmTAPBKYb,xmqyFrlGum,yaQblAQoYH,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZWuHUpdeO,,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Office bearers and board

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 7

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Management Committee or Board

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 8

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Resignation or removal of Board members

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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Meetings of the Board

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aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,btFEJcLzQE,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sSBqItIF,tJicFoJnWrgOP,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,VHAOVaUPZdZz,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Delegation of Board Powers

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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc General Meetings

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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Special General meeting

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1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,AIhwIjnDWsC,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CIzQVwUJiEfGJAqPr,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cUBppPIJXKa,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,deGcDseovyiAwGm,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hfeohBKw,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jJvCOENBbtPxmAjNtcb,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,KTmySKXlCgfZsRM,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lMTgOaGfmjC,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,nBnvotIbXTpU,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,QJBYQgWSejpNLGNNyob,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,rLeFlLTqKXADDPSQ,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tKnnJjqfiVRbO,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,UFmcjuSUok,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,uoSCFaBfYowmsiunWEN,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,WFKWTOpIG,wnQoXKOSLirBnj,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XPULOCLkyEU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YhOQHcUv,yRunWkcIhO,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,yzGwrcJjpS,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZhekwOLTLFxRAxnwME,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,ihMSZkPIDBpzgfzqs,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Quorum for and adjournment of a general meeting

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1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,Neglect,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,rhaKFXV63,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sCdaKSuvzK,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,BzeGdTTqQz,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc

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2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,Incompetence,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,tJicFoJnWrgOP,UctCEBEwqRI,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,WesZeRGYtlJFf,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Procedure at general Meetings

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aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,datgGLpwxcV,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,DYHatjFtom,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,mdKMfJatbk6,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,NSSCxTau,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,R5IT1BeYkE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,Suspicious Activity,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,GPyHnNMf,



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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Proxy Form

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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Finances & Documents

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2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DQzUgYbPfuC,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MYjbDrisq,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,yeuGnjfvBa,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,



Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 18

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Documents

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Edit Links2002-00-00 The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Page: 19

The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Employment & Consultancy

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The Constitution and Rules of the Historic Abuse Survivors & Supporters Network Inc Matters covered by the Act

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Edit Links2001-12-01 You must speak out no, urges Beattie - Hollingworth

Toowoomba, Hollingworth, Beattie



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Edit Links2001-03-24 Angry priest sex abuse victims vow "We'll fight on"

Angry priest sex abuse victims vow "We'll fight on"



Neerkol,,,Australia,



Edit Links2001-03-23 Dirty rotten liar





aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PvMoGMfCpa,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,zblVDreIx,ZWuHUpdeO,,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,



Edit Links2001-03-17 Priest told of rape allegations

60 Minutes program with Richard Carleton. Carleton confronts bishop Heenan re Neerkol abuse. Mr Johnson, National Party Member - Deputy Leader of the Opposition - mentions to the house - was offended that Bishop was approached in such a manner. He held the Sr of Joseph and The Marist brothers in greats esteem because he and lots of other members of the house were educated through the Catholic church. Issue is the relationship of MPs with religious education and religious people. mentions the great works that thes epeople have done for the state. Child abuse is secondary to him in relation to the "good work" done. Re reference by bishop Heenan to the court on behalf of the pedophile Richard Basil DURHAM



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Bishop Heenan Mr JOHNSON (Gregory—NPA) (Deputy Leader of the Opposition) (11.44 p.m.): I rise in this House at this late hour to speak about an issue that does not bring great joy to me. Some couple of weeks ago, many members may have viewed a 60 Minutes program in relation to the treatment of students and residents of the Neerkol orphanage, which is located near Rockhampton, by the Catholic Church and by some of the administrators of the Catholic Church some years ago. This evening, I want to bring to the attention of the House the treatment handed out to the Catholic bishop of the Rockhampton diocese, the Most Reverend Brian Heenan, by a member of the media crew from the 60 Minutes program, Richard Carleton. I do not say this lightly this evening, but as far as I am concerned, some indecent things have been done by some of those people, not only in the Catholic Church but in other places around our state and around our nation over a long period. I think that we have to remember that those people who did the indecent things to those young people should be brought to justice. I do not think that anyone in this House, in this state or in this nation condones that behaviour. However, I want to place on record my great regard for a great man in Bishop Brian Heenan. He is a wonderful gentleman, a truly exemplary figure within the Catholic Church and a man who should not have been subjected to that criticism and that innuendo that he was subjected to by that reporter. Whilst Brian Heenan may have written an apology to those people in question—and it may not have been his signature as such—he should still not have been subjected to what he was subjected to. I say to everybody in this chamber this evening: let us look at the great work that the Catholic Church and other churches have done over a long period in this nation. I am a product of a Catholic education, from the Sisters of St Joseph and the Marist Brothers. I am truly proud of those people. All of my family—and I know probably many other members of this chamber—have 1094 Adjournment 18 May 2001 been through the same type of education system as I have. But let us also pay great homage to the great work that a lot of these people did under great sacrifice—people from not only the Catholic Church but also the Anglican Church and the Uniting Church and the great work that the Frontier Services are doing now in my area in the far west of the state. At the end of the day, the good outweighs the bad. Let us recognise the great work that these people have done under great duress over a long period—the education, the love, the care and the help that they have brought to many families over this period.
Edit Links2000-07-09 HARMING THE LITTLE ONES: THE EFFECTS OF PEDOPHILIA ON CHILDREN [External Link]

by Timothy J. Dailey, Ph.D. “There are things that happened to me when I was a kid that you don’t know about. …” So recounts Richard Hoffman in his critically acclaimed autobiography Half the House: A Memoir, attempting to speak to his father about the child sexual abuse he had suffered in secret from his baseball coach 30 years earlier. Hoffman still feels his father is complicit in the abuse because of the neglect and malicious beatings that drove him to seek love and affection elsewhere. He knows he must confront his father after seeing a horribly burned boy whose disfigurement reminds him of his still painful emotional scars: “My eyes welled and I trembled. It wasn’t so much pity for the boy that moved me, although I pitied him, but my identification with him.”2



bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,Medical Issues,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,xmqyFrlGum,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,



Edit Links2000-06-02 Another Case Of Vaccine Murder - Secret Trials On Babies Kill More Than 20 [External Link]

Another Case Of Vaccine Murder - Secret Trials On Babies Kill More Than 20



General,Australia,



Date: Fri, 2 Jun 2000 11:08:43 -0700 http://www.sightings.com/general/stopit.htm ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SIGHTINGS ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Another Case Of Vaccine Murder - Secret Trials On Babies Kill More Than 20 By Louella Houldcroft - Health Correspondent http://www.the-journal.co.uk/cfm/news_story.cfm?storyId=184635 5-30-00 More than 20 babies died or were permanently brain-damaged in the North-East during secret government trials to test a new vaccine for whooping cough. One thousand babies from Tyneside were used in the experiments for the whooping cough immunisation programme without their parents' consent. The vaccine had never been tested before it was used on babies between 1948 and 1956, but only now have health chiefs admitted that the trials took place. The discovery was made after members of the Vaccine Victims Support Group called for a Government inquiry into the damage caused by vaccinations. An all-party parliamentary group on vaccine-damaged children, led by MP Ian Stewart, compiled information relating to all vaccines administered in the UK. Reports of the 1950s trial were among these documents. Mr Stewart said: "It appears a trial was being conducted without the parents' consent. "Families should have been warned the drug was still in its early stages." Olivia Price, North-East representative for the support group, said: "Children were being used as guinea pigs." While a handful of victims received an "interim" payment of £10,000 in compensation, most have been given no help at all. Now families hope this new evidence will help them in their fight for proper compensation so they can care properly for their loved ones. Mrs Price said the government's actions were "unforgivable". "The government knew damage could be done - anyone with a baby should have the freedom of choice about whether or not to take that risk," she said. "The fact that these parents were not told anything and their children were left so damaged is nothing short of abuse." Thousands of children were used in the trials, conducted in London, Bradford, Newcastle and Liverpool by the Medical Research Council, a Government body that provides funding for the development of new drugs. Mary Heads, from Gateshead, is 79 this year and has spent the past 50 years caring for her son Michael. Despite being fit and healthy until he was 20 months old, just hours after being given the whooping cough vaccine he became feverish and started to have convulsions. Doctors said it was unlikely Michael would survive but after eight days in a coma the youngster pulled through. He was left paralysed down the right side of his body, severely brain damaged and suffering from epilepsy. Mrs Heads said she didn't dare think about what would become of him once she had gone and was angry that no-one had warned her of the risks. "I have never been given so much as 10 pence to help me look after Michael," she said. "Now we are told the drug hadn't even been tested properly and our children were part of an experiment. "He was such a beautiful baby - so fit and healthy. What's hard is this was all so unnecessary - it was such a waste of a life." The babies were part of an NHS experiment to find out which of the various drugs could successfully vaccinate against whooping cough. Those that produced the disastrous side-effects were later withdrawn and replaced with a different vaccine. Mr Stewart said he wanted the Government to examine the issue of the trials. "Such allegations should be investigated and are of great concern," he said. But a spokesman for the Department of Health said he did not think it was "beneficial" for these issues to be brought up. "We are talking about trials that took place 50 years ago and it is important to recognise that things which happened in the past would not happen now," he said. "The majority of these claims are at least 15 years old and have nothing to do with the current vaccination programmes which we believe are safe and vital for protecting children against disease." _____ Family Enraged Over Experiments http://www.the-journal.co.uk/cfm/news_story.cfm?storyId=184634 5-30-00 Almost half a century ago, Michael Heads was given a vaccine that would change his life for ever. Instead of protecting him against whooping cough, the drug destroyed his nervous system, leaving him severely epileptic, paralysed down his right side and permanently brain damaged. Now his family, from Gateshead, has been told that Michael was part of a Government experiment to test out a new vaccine on 1,000 Tyneside children. Les Milligan, Michael's older brother, said they were angry this information had been kept from them for so many years. "No-one ever mentioned to my parents the drug was on trial or warned them there could be side-effects," he said. "The lives of everyone in this family were changed for ever when Michael was given that vaccine and all because no-one told us the truth. "I just don't understand why it was allowed to happen." Michael was just 20 months old when his mother, Mary, took him to see his GP. He recommended the new whooping cough vaccine to the young mother, claiming it would protect her son against the potentially fatal illness. "My mother told me not to let them vaccinate him but I believed the doctor and just assumed he knew best," said Mrs Heads. "It was one of the biggest mistakes of my life and I still feel guilty even now." Michael is now a severe epileptic and has suffered a fit three times a day ever since. The 50-year-old has never been out of the house alone and relies on the constant love and support of his mother, Les and his sister Sharon. Although Mrs Heads did try to get compensation for him in both 1979 and 1980, Michael's case was rejected because they could not prove he was 80pc brain damaged. Now Mrs Heads is almost 80 and fears she will not be able to look after her son for much longer. SIGHTINGS HOMEPAGE http://www.sightings.com
Edit Links2000-02-12 Rape trial inflamed by judge Brisbane Courier February 12, 2000





Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,btFEJcLzQE,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,datgGLpwxcV,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,zblVDreIx,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,kNpufgTBpJTWd,



Edit Links2000-00-00 Justice system failing victims

Justice system failing victims



aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gdfYHVCRn,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,RkdtFwcHHAZg,



Edit Links2000-00-00 Why did the Forde inquiry take so long





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Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report)

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Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 01

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,ellpyXjQJNy,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,okOjdzMU,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,



Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 1

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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Neerkol Closed Section Background St .lmeph’s Orphanage, nm by the Rockhampton Congregation ofthe Sisters of Mercy, officially opened on 22 December 1885. The institution was situated on Neerkol Creek. 22 kilomenee west of Rockhampton. The Sisters of Mercy-a religious Order within the Catholic Church~was initially established in 1831 in Dublin by Catheri.ne McAuley and was dedicated to cario for the poor, the sick and the uneducated. ln 1861, 30 years after the 0n'ler's foundation, the iirst Sisters of Mercy arrived on Queensland soil. Following the actions of the Brisbane Congregation, who founded St Vincent’s Orphanage, Nudgee, in 1867, the Rockhampton Sisters of Mercy effectively entered the field with an intake of 11 needy children who had been transferred from the Rockhampton Orphanage on ll May 1885. A further 75 children joined them in December Bom the abandoned orphanage at Mackay, where the inmates had suffered from extreme anaemia caused by prolonged exposure to malarial disease due to the prevalence of mosquitoes on the swampy land. Tlw5naladdinonmthisminalwmplenrntofchHdrencanrinearly1886widid1e arrival of seven children from the Townsville Orphanage. Like its sauthem countelpan at Nudgee, the land on which the Orphanage was built was the gift of a Bishop. In 1882 Dr Cani, Bishop of Rockhampton (1882-98), acquired the property for the purpose of consnucring an orphanage which he invited the Sisters to staff in 1885. For its first 90 years St Joseph’s operated on the domiitory accommodation principle. However, in 1974 the decision was made by the Sisters to continue their apostolate to children in need of care and protection according to modern principles and practices. As a result of this change of direction there were no admissions to the Orphanage from 1975, and the placement of children in altemadve accommodation began. Some children were retmited with their own families, others were fostered and by 1978 the remaining children were housed in either family group homes or an adolescent group home in Rochmmpton (A .Weak 1985). St .loseph’s, Neerkol, was officially closed as a residential institution for children in 1985. Fifty-four fomter residents gave evidence to the lnquiry by written submission, interview, or formal hearing. Of those, two had positive accounts of the institution. The Inquiry also heard evidence from six Sisters of Mercy who had been on staff at Neerkol during the Orphanage’s period of operation. The isolation of St Joseph’s Neerkol was an entirely inappropriate location for an orphanage. Its isolation and distance from Rockhampton deprived the children of any real oppornmity to integrate into the local community. The effects of that isolation and loneliness were particularly severe for the British migrant children who had, at least in some instances, come from institutions that were well integrated into village or town life. They thus suffered the dual dislocations of uprooting from their country of birth and removal from a familiar community environment. The aculeness of die isolation felt by those children was exemplified in evidence given by a former child migrant who described his feelings on looking down the driveway from Neerkol on the day after his arrival: lvremzmbersaying tamyself? I‘m lost, how am I cvergoing wget badcjiom here? My parents, my family, my culture. I just fel! lost and mapped and in prison. 1 Neerkol ClosedSecuon
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 2

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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1hXqayif,aCOj6iFwPFD2,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,DYHatjFtom,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,nBnvotIbXTpU,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WesZeRGYtlJFf,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,zblVDreIx,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,wnQoXKOSLirBnj,



In addition to the obvious disadvantages of isolation in tenns of depriving the children of the opportunity of social interaction and absorption into normal community life, the setting of Neerkol inevitably gave rise to a closed community with a culture of its own. Something of this phenomenon was descnbed in evidence by Dr Ken Armstrong, who referred to the risk of an institution becoming closed to the external world, with the potential for abuse in circumstances where there was a perceived need for conformity and care givers were under stress. In the decades from the 1920s through to and including the 19605, management practices at the orphanage, whether through ignorance or by design, were such as to suppress individuality. A constant theme in the evidence was that there was a climate of fear. That atmosphere seems to have affected not only the children; some of the nuns who gave evidence to the Inquiry spoke of their feelings of intimidation and puwerlessness as junior members of the Order. Depersonalisation Children had personal possessions removed from them on entry into the orphanage, including their clothing. Thereafter, they wore uniforms, and ‘yard’ clothes at play. They did not have designated items of clothing, but drew from a pool. Children were assigned numbers and were generally referred to by their sumames. While there was a general birthday celebrated on the first Sunday in September, individual birthdays were not recognised. Many of the former residents who gave evidence were unaware, in some cases until adulthood, of their correct dates of birth or, in some instances, even of their correct names. A number complained that where they were given gifts or other personal items while resident at the home, these were removed immediately and generally not returned, even on their departure. Work and recreation Neerkol was poorly staffed, and had little in the way of labour-saving devices, The Orphanage was heavily dependent on the work undertaken by the children from an early age. Tasks perfomted included ironing, washing, kitchen work, and cleaning, and, in the case of the boys, famt labour. Older girls, some of whom were employed as domestics at the Orphanage after they reached working age, undertook a large part of the Nursery work. A number of witnesses expressed concem at the rough handling of babies and toddlers by some of these girls, who were untrained and were unlikely to have had much experience of tender care themselves. In addition to the practical need to have the children assist, there seems to have been a view that it was necessary to leave them as little spare time as possible so as to remove opportunity for mishehaviour. The tasks imposed on them took up a great deal of their time, as did religious observance. The spontaneity normal in childhood activity was not encouraged in the Orphanage; for example, meals were eaten in silence with punishment for any breach of the rule. There was a heavy emphasis, particularly during the 1950s and 1960s, on organised sport as opposed to free play. Toys were almost unknown amongst the smaller children. One of the organised activities was boxing; some of the residents complained of occasions in the 1950s when girls were obliged to box each other or the boys. Some of the witnesses regarded this arrangement as punitive. Those occasions appear to have been limited; other residents who gave evidence were unaware of such events, Separation of siblings Neerkol, well into the 19605, had what appears to have been a rigid separation of the sexes, which resulted i.n a separation of brothers and sisters which caused, and has 2 Neefkoi Closed Section
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 3

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,kixvykWbM,KQkkUxjfknGg,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,sSBqItIF,



continued to cause, cotsiderable distress. The dormitories were age based, which in turn led to removal of younger children from their older siblings of the same sex. A number of residents spoke of actually being physically prmished for attempting to maintain contact with siblings of the qiposite sex. There appears to have been no active encouragement of children to maintain their family relationships. ln some instances, children were not aware that they had siblings at Neerkol, while others were told, wrongly, that their parents were dead. lt is not clear to what extent misinformation may have been deliberate in order to discourage curiosity and to what extent it may have been the result of the lack of information available to the nuns staffing the orphanage. One ofthe nuns who was at Neerkol during the 1950s observed, when interviewed, that the Sisters caring for the children rarely knew the circumstances which had brought them there. Certainly, it is clear that in the case of the British migrant children, virtually no records that might have thrown any light on the children’s backgrounds were provided. The use of corporal punishment in institutions such as boarding schools was corrrmon through the period under examination here. 'l‘he punishments administered at Neerkol, however, were excessive by any standard. Although the Regulations under the Stare lJrildrmAm(inforcetmdl1966)pmvkiedthatcorporalpunishmentwaswbe administered as a last resort and only in the presence of the orphanage’s superintendent, beatings of children, often with clothing removed, were a frequent occurrence at Neerkol. Some witnesses spoke of beatings administered by nuns who seemed to lose all control in the process. leaving them with bruises, welts, and even, on occasion, cuts. The nun who was in charge of the big boys dormitory, stood out in the evidence as ferocious in her administering of tloggings, as did the nun in charge of the school: I 've seen the children hit with a machine nnzp. I‘ve seen the children hit with the bamboo, Vvesemtlreclrildrenhirwirhthedieselxrrupmtdalsawithahalf whip-not ajilll whip. a Iuzgfwhip akrlicouldrfl do anything. Corporal punishment was often carried out in view of other children. Some witnesses recalled the disturbing impact of seeing others beaten. Former residents gave evidence that in the 1940's and 1950's runaways were treated with particuhrr brutality; male workers were called in to flog them with stockwhips, often in sight of other children as a deterrent. Similar punishment was administered to older boys whose behaviour appeared to pose a threat to the control of the nuns. A number of witnesses complained of being locked up in a variety of forms of confinement ranging from cupboards to areas undemeath the dormitories. Others said that they had been punished by being forced to maintain a kneeling position with arms outstretched, known as the ‘Moses‘ position, for long periods. No punishment register, as required by the Regulations, was maintained; indeed, the nuns appear not to have been made aware of any necessity to do so. The use of harsh physical discipline to enforce obedience was reinforced by the threat, implicit or explicit, of removal to refomtatory-style institutions such as the Westbrook Fann Home for Boys, and the Mt Maria Industrial School for Girls in the south of the State. In some instances children who were perceived as troublesome were actually transferred to those institutions; most of the Neerkol children were aware of them by rumour only, but they appear to have had a fearsome reputation. In one case brought to the Comrnission's attention, two boys were removed to Westbrook. Contemporary records indicate that they were regarded as something of a nuisance at Neerkol. One 3 Neerlml Clow Section
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 4

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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(who gave evidence to the Inquiry) had had failings out with two of the farmers to whom he had been sent out for service. Although there seems to have been no investigation into the rights and wrongs of those incidents, and there was no suggestion that he had committed any offence, he was transferred to Westbrook. He was not told at any stage prior to his arrival there what his destination Was. Instead he was given to understand that he was travelling to a farm for employment. Once there, he was subjected to the brutal regime which prevailed at Westbrook. The bitterness of his treaunent there was considerably intensified by his knowledge that he had not offended, and his bewilderment at finding himself punished nonetheless. Psychological abuse and neglect Children at Neerkol, almost by definition, were there because of family disruption, ranging from inability of a single parent to maintain them, to abandonment or even, in a couple of cases, to loss of a parent by murder. Up until the 1960s, there appears to have been little recognition of the need for individualised care and attention; and the ratio of staff to children at Neerkol would, in any event, have rnade such attention impossible. Some witnesses said that they felt denigrated by disparaging references, on the part of at least some nuns at Neerkol, to their backgrounds and families. (One example given by a witness was of being told by a nun that she had been born in the gutter and would die in the gutter.) Such statements heightened feelings of worthlessness and were particularly hamiful to children whose self image tended already to have been damaged by other life events: I was made, by the degrading way they trealed me to feel like a worthless piece of mblnlrh that nobody wanted and this feeling, engendered in me, by them, followed and qfected me long into my adult life. A practice particularly harmful to children‘s self-esteem was that of humiliating children for bed wetting. Some of the children were made to sleep on hessian bags on a ‘ wet bed verandah’. Two witnesses spoke of having been made, as adolescents, to wear nappies as punishment for bed wetting. There was a consistent account of both boys and girls who wet the bed being made to stand, in front of other children, with the wet bed sheet over their heads. Not surprisingly, the result appears to have been the creation of a long term cycle of anxiety and bed wetting in many of the children involved. Protection of children and response to complaints There appears to have been no one within the hierarchy at Neerkol to whom children could take complaints of misueaunent with any confidence of their being addressed. There were infrequent references in the evidence to nuns interceding on behalf of children; but such intercessions appear to have been futile and there is some suggestion that nuns who attempted to intervene in the cycle were themselves the subject of reproof, removal, or even physical abuse. Sexual abuse A number of former residents reported sexual abuse from a range of persons: members of foster families to whom they were sent on holidays, male workers at the orphanage, regular male visitors, and priests stationed at the orphanage, 'I`wo of the individuals named are presently the subject of criminal proceedings and it is not considered appropriate for the Inquiry to make any fmding in this regard. Others named, who were the sulject of apparently credible evidence, were a frequent visitor to the orphanage, and a priest who was resident there from 1942 to 1964. Both of those individuals are ‘ 4 Neerkol Closed section
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 5

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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new dead, never having had occasion to address these allegations, so that definitive Endings are impossible. 'Hz Conmission heard evidmoe of one nzsmmemthe l940s when a curnplamt was made of sexual misbehaviour on the part of the orphanage priest to a parish priest in couun'y Queensland. According tn the wimesnbe priest said he would look into tlxe matter and investigate it. When the priest spoke again to the witness' Either he said that he had uwesugamed the rnanermddne boy nut have had nighnnaremdien was no truth in the complaint. He then complained to a senior police officer about the same Aher a omtple of weeks the police of hoer reported dmlt had spoken to the parish priest who had First received the complaint, and accepted his view that sufficient inveetigation had occurred and tliere was nothiug in the conrplaint No further action was mken. There is no means now, half a century later, of independently conéxming hisacco\mt_ht this consistemwhhagenenlunwHHngneswmoeptth|lamminthe position of priest could behave irnpmperly. The prevalence of that attitude to the priest’s position and the refusal to entertain such complaints, undoubtedly exposed the children at Neerkol, as with children in other Catholic orphamges, tzo the risk of abuse. What emergee very strongly is matdnmnsneidrerwnmmphtednmmoeptedmat children might be the subject of seinul advances by men in whose company they were left alonm whether tlioscrneu held positioos of genenleeneem or not. Some cf the residents spoke of being beaten for complaining of sexual abuse; certainly no child at Neerkol was hkelywthmkthmnwnqahmtofahtsemadeagsinnareepecwdmemher of the Catholic faith, let alone a priest, would be received with compassion and concern. l said lokhebupeaarl‘1do1|7|uu|1togobaddl:re!...YaubmwtIleyIod|||˘ l|p,youb|0w!'Andl'm1hereauckingirmaic|ying.IJai˘L '71u[rt|w'member] hurtsm˘andev˘ryoneeLve'.A||d|h:nl told lrimabo|a[|h˘satualabu.re]:and do yaukmwwl|azhedidwhenl|oldhi|t?Hemntednmw|dmdsm2i. Dorftyou dau talk so vulgar, you vulgar little girl’, and he slapped me acmrs the face. 1henImnulmmardandstanalhk:ki11g|I|euar,ar|dhera1d. 'You're th˘ on˘ they pulled out of the bloody gurref. And lhm when wcgar back] was put over lh˘ friggin' de.tkof[asu˘'m:mber]aMIgolajlaggi1|g. Education Children were taught in classes in a single large classroom. The teaching regime seems m have been based on punishrnem and humiliation of children whonndeermrs. Children were hit with the cane or asuee|-edgedmlerand made wwenradunce'scap. The teaeher in charge of the school fornt any yelrswasamtn who seems to have instilled fear into the cbildren. and, in some insmnoes, into the yotmger mms. Shewssa large woman, disposed on the evidence to violent and beating of children’ A common complaint by witnesses was of their inability to learn because their minds felt paralysed by apprehension. Left-handed children were compelled to write with their right hands and were punished for failing to do so. Inthel940s.children who were faHingllckwardsinc|assweremn given any assistance, but instead were placed on a verandah weaving baskets. In some instances, tbey were infonnally removed from class snd put to work around the orphanage. ln one case at least, there appears to have been virmally no interest in educating a boy who because of his runl background wu particularly useful around the orphanage farm; he was performing men’s work from age ll. 5 Neerkol ClodSemon
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 6

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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The levels of education achieved were lamentable; some children left Neerkol barely literate. In 1961, the District Inspector was reporting that the letters he received from children in employment indicated ‘that they would have been fortunate to complete fourth grade standard’. It is hard to escape the conclusion urged by some former residents that the children at Neerkol were raised to be farm hands and domestics. Certainly that absence of adequate education has proved to be a major loss and source of resentment in their adulthood. The same inspector in his reports in the early 1960s was urging that a guidance oflicer or psychologist visit the district and assess children individually, with a view no giving special assistance to those who were behind in their education. Although a Dr Phillips visited and examined some children, there is no evidence that any subsequent action was taken to support them. During the 1950s, those who passed Scholarship satisfactorily (mostly boys) did go on to further education; the boys to St. Brendan‘s in Yeppoon, or the girls to the Range Convent in Rockhampton. Some felt that their orphanage status prevented their full integration into school life. It seems that for Neerkol students to obtain their junior certificate was unusual and to complete high school was almost unheard of. In the 1960s, the numbers travelling to school in Rockhampton increased and for the first time those perceived to be intellectually backward were sent to the Rockhampton Special School. There appears still, however, to have been little done in regard to the need for individual assistance, particularly with respect to the more disadvantaged children. The case of E. is often referred to by other residents. Contemporary documents show that this child who was admitted to Neerkol in 1961 had a severe speech impediment, was aggressive to other children and exhibited other behavioural disturbance in the form of activities such as head hanging. When she was four years old the orphanage`s then medical officer recommended that she be sent to ‘an institution for the mentally sick’. In 1967, the child was transferred to St Vinoents Orphanage in Brisbane and was there examined by a psychiatrist. Her conclusion was mat the child was of nonnal intelligence, not requiring any psychiatric treatment, rather her severe spwch defect was frustrating her, causing her to use her strength against other children. While at St Vineents she was given speech therapy and was noted to be relating well to the therapist and other children. However, in 1968, she was returned to Neerkol and it does not appear that any further speech therapy or other intervention took place. Thereafter, there are records of her aggression and tantrums. Eventually, she was sent to the Rockhampton Opportunity School as it was then known, but her behavioural problems continued, leading to her being transferred in 1972 to Warilda. Eventually, she was placed in Wolston Park for a period, but it was noted that she had no psychiatric disorder and indeed was most inappropriately placed there. E. gave evidence to the Inquiry. It was apparent that she was of nomial intelligence and had long since overcome her speech defect. It seems likely that her behavioural problems were to a very significant extent contributed to by sexual acts being committed on her hy an employee of the orphanage over a number of years. In her account, and that of other residents, her various behavioural problems were responded to with ptmishrnent. What is certainly apparent from her File is that at no stage at Neerkol, despite the report of the psychiatrist who had seen her in Brisbane, was there any therapeutic or educational intervention to assist her. Het experiences are extreme, but t.hey are representative of the lack of specialist assistance available to children at Neerkol as recently as the early 19705. 5 Neerkol Closed Section
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Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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Auother aspect in which children were fai|cdintheir education at Neerkol isinl1Je absence of any sex education or training in life skills. As to the former. it seems that girls were not infomied about the process of menstruation, and former residents generally complained about the lack of knowledge about sex and reproduction. There was no training in practical matters such as handling money or rising publk tmsport. he result was that children were placed into the outside world who, even allowing for their youth (most were 14 when they were sent out tn work), were extraordinarily naive and vulnenble and tended tn leam mnllyl etqaerience, very often hither. Early pregnancy and unsuccessful relationships were alluded to by several witnesses. Factors contributing to neglect and abuse As observed at the outset of this chapter,the rearea number of factors whieh can be identified as giving rise to a risk of abuse in any given institution. For Neerkol, its physhal isolation was one. Another was the lack offending needed to provide n level of resources which would enable children to he cared for in physical conditions of reasonable comfort by carers who were not over-burdened. The worldow of individual nuns, particularly those in charge of the nursery and the children's dnmiitories was unremitting and arduous; as late as 1959, for example, the washing for the entire orphanage was done in an old-fashioned boiler. A Sister who had been in charge of the nursery at Neerkol in the midodgro|a|din childcare prior1agoinglaNeer1tola1all7 No, ldldnar our mmesjusx appenredon a lirt and we went. A lack of apdmdeorendiusiasm for dealing with children was compminded by averwork, lack of resources and the rigour of life in an isolated, harsh environment. The feeling of isoladonaxxi loss of freedom wumtcon§mdwd1echHdren.0n:of 7 NeerkolClosed Section
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 8

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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the Sisters of Mercy who had joined the Order from Ireland, and was sent to Neerkol in the 1950s described her experience: So the isolation for me wax that I was 24 hours a day with the children and not long havbig Iqi my own family. So, you lmow, it was bad enough being away from your country and your family, but I was away fum the closeness af my own novittkzrejiieridr. All of those factors were likely to contribute to the risk of abuse. Deaths at Neerkol A number of former residents of Neerkol believed that children had died in mysterious circurnstances and were buried in unmarked graves on the premises. So far as is possible, the Inquiry has endeavoured to establish whether there is any basis in fact for these beliefs. Hanging Some of the witnesses alleged that a girl named Sandra Sorbie had hanged herself on the premises after setting fire to one of the buildings. Because she was never seen at the orphanage again after this incident, witnesses were confident that she had succeeded in ldlling herself. The Conunission was able to establish, however, that a girl of that name had been transferred to a psychiatric hospital in Brisbane after attempting to start a Ere at Neerkol. Death of Eileen Pavlovich One interviewee recalled having seen a child whose name was believed to be Helen Pavlovich seriously ill after ingesting a marble forced into her nose by older children. He believed she had died and been buried in an unmarked grave at Neerkol, No child called Helen Pavlovieh could be identitded, but an infant called Eileen Pavlovich had died at about the relevant time (1966) while a resident of the home. At the age of nine months she was admitted to the Rockhampton Base Hospital, suffering from what was diagnosed as gastroenteritis, and died two days later. She was buried in the Rockhampton cemetery. Drowning in the creek Many residents recalled hearing of an incident in which a boy or boys (twins) drowned in the creek at Neerkol, in the 19505 or 1960s. One believed that a child had been deliberately drowned by a yardman at the orphanage; most appeared to think that the boy or boys were buried in the grounds of the orphanage. A particular fomier resident was commonly identified by witnesses as having been present when the drowning occurred. The Commission was able to speak to this witness. His recollection was that, as a boy of ten or twelve, he had assisted in bringing up on a wheelbarrow from the creek, the body of a boy who had drowned there. This had occurred somewhere around the year 1956. It is important to note however, that this witness recalled a funeral of the drowned boy which he had not been permitted to amend. If his recall is correct, his account contains nothing which suggests that there was an illicit burial. Another witness, a former resident who had stayed on to work at the orphanage, said that he recalled seeing a boy fall in the river and drown, and that the body was taken away in a box for burial at die dump. The Commission has been unable no confirm the occurrence _~___ S Neerkol Closed Section
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 9

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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independently of these accounts, either through first-hand evidence or through comenporary dnmrnents. Possible dmwning ofa baby bdng bathed Two witnesses. sisters. had a vivid recollection of seeing a very small child at the lbddlillg stage ˘||.l'|kDd in the bath so viciously by an older working girl that it appeared blueanrl lifeless afterwards. They were not able to ideutify the child audoould not recall having seeuit agninatiertbe incident. lt should be said that they were scrupulous in their evidence anrl made it clear that they could not say that the child had died; only that it had the appearance of lifelessness. lt is accordingly impossible to conclude on that evidence that the child seen by these witnesses did indeed die, although plainly the distressing episode has troubled them ever since. Disposal ol' dllklrerfs bodis Some witnesses referred to rumours that the bodies of children were disposed in lime, whdemhembelkvedmar babies and lmfomrses had been huiedmdzgrmrnds of the orphanage. No evidence emerged of any particular child known to have been at Neerkol whose whereabrxxmcmldnorhe accounmd for. Norwu there any evkience dut would lead to a conclusion that large numbers of babies died, or foemses were aborted, at Neerkol. There were deaths, such as that of the Pavlovkh baby already referred to, but there was an absence of firsthand evidence which would justify a conclusion that these were suppressed. ln 1997, investigations were carried out on behalf of the Queensland Police Service in the grounds ol' Neerkol using electromagnetic testing to ascertain whetlnrrmymddismrhancecmddhefamdmsitesklendied by for nerresidentsm possible burial sites. No diswrbance indiudve of grave-digging was found in any area other than the official burial-ground, The Commission does not consider that the evidence supports a fmding rharbodieswere illicit lydisposedofatldeerlrol. 'H|el'ule of the State ChiIdren’s Depar|mmt Under the relevant legislation (the Stare UIIYJIUIACLV 1911 and the Clu7a‘r\:n2˘ Services Act 1965), the Director of the Stale Children's Department (and its various departmental successors) became guardian of State children or as they later were, children unrkr Care and Protection, or Care and Control, orders. The C7rildr˘n's Services Act 1965 specitied a duty in the Director to use his powers and the Deparmnnl’sreammes to hmherdr best inwresm of the chHdren h1his care.1he Director also became guardian of the British migrant children as a result of the delegationby the Commonwea.lch Minister of lmmigntiouofhis powers and frrnctions as guardian under Section 6 of the Irrrmlgmxlon (Guardrlznship of Children) Act 1946. CuswdiamhipofdmechHdru1, however, wugivenwBishcpTymnofKockhampum by a delegation under Section 7 of the same Act, in contrast to the position of State cbildmn fmwhosews tody the slrpermmlknt of dreinaimdonhr which dmywen placed was responsnale. Section 49 (1) of the .mae Children Acts 1911 required all State children to receive a minimum of mzvisitwery dueemonms from moffmerofdrebeparmrent was cemin whether any anarenticeship or work agreements in respect of them had been fultilled and that their ‘trenunent, education and care’ was satisfactory. ’l`he regulation required inspectiuns of receiving institutions at least once per month. During the years inrespect of which complaints by former residents of Neerkol were received, i.e. 1920's througi to the l9f70's, there ws a State Cbildren’s inspector (or as they were later known, District Oflicer) stationed in Rockhampton. l-lowever, few of the former residents could recallactually having been spoken to by an inspector at any time prior to being sent out 9 Nm'|rnl Closcd Scmcn
Edit Links2000-00-00 Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions (Neerkol Closed Report) Page: 10

Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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to service. Inspectors* tdsits to the home were usually anticipated, and preparations were made by way of extensive cleaning and improving of the home’s appearance eg., by placing quilts, not otherwise used, on beds. The children were not encouraged to speak to the inspector, and the possibility of extending an opportunity for complaint does not seem to have been entertained either by the departrnental staff or those in charge of the home. There, was it seems, no real interest on the part of the Departmental inspectors in exploring the conditions in which children in the Home were living; rather the attitude was that the nuns deserved congratulatiou for their difficult work, and ought not to be challenged in any way. That perception arose, it must be said, in a context where the orphanage was underfunded and understaffed, and the nuns were expected to take every child in need of accommodation no matter how stretched their resources. On the other hand, Lhe fact that the ratio of staff to children at Neerkol was grossly inadequate must have been apparent to those in charge of the Department. For example, during the 1950s, between 10 and 15 nuns cared for between 300 and 400 children at the Orphanage. Extemal help was seldom engaged, except in the form of farm labour. Enquiry would have revealed, for instance, that one nun was responsible for the care of 45 boys in the big boys’ donnitory, while another nun with a single assistance had charge of 94 girls, big and little. In the rurrsery, a single nun with the help of two fourteen-year»olds was looking after 25 to 30 babies and toddlers. Notwidistanding, the Department continued to place children at Neerkol, without regard to its capacity to provide proper care for the numbers it was receiving, until its restructuring in the Late 1960's and early 197O’s. Another area in which the Department must be said to have failed in its obligations to the children at Neerkol is in its failure to make any attempt at maintaining family relationships Parents were begrudgingly allowed visits to their children, but conmct was not actively encouraged. Nor were children kept informed about their families. Two of the witnesses who came to the Inquiry, despite having lived at Neerkol at the same time had only discovered in the months before giving evidence that they were half-brother and sister. It does not appear that the staff of the State Children’s Department in its office in Rockhampton had any training in their role, and it is clear that they were considerably overworked. Given those circumstances, it is unfair to criticise their performance as individuals. What can be justly criticised, however, is the failure of the Department of Children’s Services (as it became in 1965) to ensure that staff with training in child care and protection were employed in its Rockhampton ofiice. Appropriate qualifications were available at least by the late 19605; but qualiiied staE did not arrive at the Department`s central Queensland office until the late 1970s, a fact representative of an indifference to the Deparnnent’s obligations to regional children, manifested over decades. The consequence of that indifference was that no attention was given to the needs of individual children; no sufficient scrutiny of the circumstances in which the children were kept took place; and no opportunity was given for child.ren's complaints to be heard. Worse, the evidence was that when some children did attempt to complain of abuse to departmental officers the response was disbelief and anger; and in some instances the complaint was relayed to the nuns, resulting in further reprisal. The State failed in its care of the children of which it was, through the Director of the Department, guardian. I0 Neertm Closed seenon
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Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Commission of Inquiry into Abuse of Children in Queensland Institutions Leanne Forde (Commissioner) put forward to the QLD Police 14 allegations of crimes - all 14 allegations resulted in a "No Findings" by Queensland Police

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A Streak of Light: 100 Years of Meleor Park 1885-1985, (1985) Centenary Celebrations Committee. Neerkol, Rockhampton. ENDNOTE ’ It should be said, however, that in some mre instances witnesses did speak of her innerceding on children‘s behalf as for example, in the instance of stepping in no ensure that a boy was not sent hack to a brutal service placement. Neenml claw: smign
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aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,MYjbDrisq,



KARRALA HOUSE - CLOSED REPORT The Inquiry heard from 10 witnesses who were resident at Kamla House for various periods between 1963 and 1971. Establishment and Control In 1961, the Nicklin Government stated its intention to establish a Training Home for Girls at the Ipswich Mental Hospital in its vacant Female Ward. On the 17 January 1963, by Order in Council, a Training Home for Girls was established in accordance with the provisions of the State ChiMr˘n'.r Act 191] - 1955. It was initially to be known as Moreton House, but by the time of its official opening in February 1963, it had been formally named Karrala House. While the institution came under the jurisdiction and management of the Director of the State Children Department, ministerial approval was granted for the appointment of the Medical Superintendent, Dr RA Atherton, Matron and Assistant Man-on of the Ipswich Mental Hospital, as a committee of management! Approval was also granted for Atherton to act as the Superintendent of the Home and, under the jurisdiction of the Director of Suite Children, to accept the full control and management of the institution, staff and inmates. Co-operation between both the State Children and Health Departments in this regard had already been attempted in the operation of the Wilson Youth I-Ioqital with some success, and accordingly both were intent upon further incorporating the welfare and medical models into a consistent approach to institutional care. With the Schwarten Inquiry into Westbrook a not too distant memory, there appears to have been a determination to make the goals of new institutions rehabilitative in nature rather than exclusively custodial. This new philosophy existed more in theory than in practice, however, as the perpetual coneem of behaviour control continued to dominate decision-making at Karrala. In its Annual Report of 1963, the State Children Department reported that Kanala House was established “for the purpose of dealing with the more emotionalbf disturbed girl and those girls in denominational homes who are incorrigible and are continually upsetting other inrnate.t”.“ In a 1962 memorandum In the Director of Mental Hygiene, Dr Atherton expressed the following view: A.: indicated earlier, I believe that this Home would fuljl the most usefull function by taking the more recalcitrant type of girl who is hardened to ordinary handling in a private ar Urumh Home. Dtlrchzline shuuM be as rigid as that in a Prison which would be the phc: these girls would find themselves but for their age. Ar Prison is a deterrent to crime ro. in my opinion, should the discipline and consequent fear of return to this flume be a deterrent to the girh' from returning I0 mt antisocial or asodalforrn q'b˘hav|br."' The Government, it seems, was content to allow the Churches to carry on the business of reforming wayward girls. Its commitment in respect of Karrala House was limited to providing a quasi-penal institution to facilitate the task of extracting and disciplining “problem” girls and retuming them back to the denominational homes for fixture care," Location and Design Karrala House initially consisted of a plain brick building that was surrounded by a high wire fence rimmed with barbed wire, situated within the grounds of the Ipswich Mental Hospital." The building had formerly been used as a ward for patients in the female wing of the Hospital. The use of this old disused ward as a Training Home for Girls by the Government demonstrated its reluctance at that time l
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to expend the requisite funding necessary for the provision of a modem, more progressive facility. The decision not to build a planned occupational therapy unit to accompany the ward suggests that rehabilitation still remained very much a secondary consideration, notwithstanding the Government assertion to the contrary, The building was initially divided into two separate areas. These areas, known as the “privileged” and “unprivileged” sides, each contained a number of rooms. Any amenities provided were deliberately kept below those offered in the average private home or Industrial Homes.” Four rooms contained in the unprivileged area (numbers 9~l2 inclusive) were known as the security rooms and were specifically used for the confinement of troublesome inmates, Nine former inmates who were resident at Kari-ala House during the period 1963 to 1968, provided vivid descriptions of the rooms in the privileged and unprivileged sides. Their descriptions were, in essence, consistent with the following account. Room 9 was approximately 10lt square. Wooden shutters had initially covered the whole of the windows in the room, restricting fresh air and natural light. These shutters had been deliberately placed over the windows as an incentive to help girls in their training."“ A 1967 newspaper article includes a more detailed description,"‘“ A 7ft high wooden shutter, 3ii wide and mounted about 2ft 6in from the ground, masked the windows, preventing any view outside. Higher up above the shutter was the main source of afternoon light - a 3ft by 18in perspex window divided into 15 panels. Tins could be tilted open to provide fresh air. The room was bare but for a libre mattress covered in canvass and a blackboard with chalk. The mattress was located on the floor. Sheets of canvas were provided as linen, An electric light was available but controlled by staff,” The toilet arrangements consisted of a nibber receptacle covered with a cloth. There were no permanent washing facilities in the room." Rooms 10, 11 and 12 were also bare but for a mattress simated on a wooden bedstead fixed to the wall. Canvass sheets were provided as linen but apparently. if safety allowed. ordinary sheets and blankets were supplied. Ablution facilities were provided for inmates each morning and night within the rooms.” Wooden shutters covered the windows, restricting fresh air and natural light. Again, it seems the room had electric lighting controlled by staff. All wooden shutters were eventually replaced after political pressure in 1967 forced the administration to renovate the existing windows to enable better ventilation and natural light." A built-in bed was also provided in Room 9 in January of 1968. Across the hall were a number of other rooms. These rooms were the non-security rooms of the unprivileged side, The rooms contained beds, ticking covered mattresses, sheets, blankets and a small cupboard for personal items, Wire shutters covered the windows in these rooms. Washing and toilet facilities outside were made available to the inmate each morning and uight.’““ Separate to this area was another section, containing several other rooms, known as the privileged side. Rooms in tl1is area contained furnishings and a chenille bedspread. Some of the rooms in this area had shutters over the windows, however, these shutters remained open after a girl had been in a room for one or two nights. All of the windows in the rooms had bars of an ornamental design on the o"otside.“" Overcrowding in the denominational homes during the early 1960s eventually forced the Government to formulate plans for the provision of extra accommodation at Karrala House. In June 1966, Cabinet approved that a vacant ward at the Ipswich Mental Hospital be converted to accommodate delinquent girls as an adjunct to the adjoining building knowing as Karrala House.” The refurbishment of the existing disused Female Ward 3 was completed and it was eventually opened on 30 December 1968 as Karma 2. The existing Unit was renamed Karmla 1 and was divided into an Observation Section for girls considered to be recalcitrant and a 2
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1hXqayif,47bcMs9yCPJI,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,Criminal Activity,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,gPwpw2QNGh49,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,mdKMfJatbk6,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,Q2OpLVx5ybh,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,Suspicious Activity,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,WesZeRGYtlJFf,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,hfeohBKw,



Rernand Section for girls awaiting court appearances. Every girl admitted on remand, however. was still required to spend 24 hours in the Observation Section, Karrala 2 was designated as a privileged section for girls considered “good”, It was claimed that girls in this section enjoyed similar conditions to those offered in the denominational hornesf" A high wire fence was erected between Kalrala l and Karrala 2 to prevent inmates from associating with each other. Reason for Admission A total of 547 girls were to pass thrmigh Karrala before its closure in 1971. Most of these girls had not been convicted of a criminal offence, but had committed status offences (i.e. offences so designated because of the offender’s status as a juvenile). ln the majority of cases, it appears that sexual behaviour perceived as inappropriate prompted the Childrens Court to make an order for care and control."“‘ Girls who had initially been admitted to one of the denominational training homes or a similar institution for care, whose behaviour and emotional disturbance was such that they could no longer be cared for in that home, were also admitted to Karrala I-louse.""“‘ Former inmates told the inquiry that they had been placed in Karrala House simply because they had run away from one of the denominational homes. This contrasts with a statement of the Deputy Director of the Department of Chi1dren’s Services, contained in a memorandum to the Minister for Health in 1968, that such admissions only occurred in cases where the absconding was part of a wider pattern of general defiance and misbehaviour on the part of the girl.” An examination of the Seclusion Book kept by the administration of Karrala House revealed that many girls who had absconded from denominational homes were transferred to the state institution. Entries also revealed that some girls who had absconded from denominational homes during 1965 to early 1967 were placed in seclusion for periods that ranged from 34 days to 55 days at a time. One entry revealed that a girl who had run away from her own home was placed in seclusion for 50 days. All of these girls were secluded in Room 9. Entries examined after April 1967 indicate that even though inmates were still placed in seclusion in Room 9 for absconding, the period of confinement was generally shorter than had previously been the case. The Medical Model While in Karrala House, inmates were subjected to treatment inspired by the ‘medical model’. An inmate’s “anti-social” behaviour was conceptualized solely in medical terms, with little regard to social or other factors. The institution was managed by a Medical Superintendent and staffed by psychiatric nurses, and psychiatric treatment was considered the most appropriate method to bring about their “rehabilitation”. However, while an initial psychiatric assessment of inmates was made upon admission to Karrala House, no further regular consultations took place unless the individual case was considered sufficiently serious to warrant attention by the visiting psychiatrist from the Division of Youth and Child Guidance. On those occasions tranquillisers were administered if considered necessary.” Responding in 1968 to allegations contained in a Sunday Truth article, the Deputy Director of the Department of Children’s Services asserted that inmates were “treated along modern psychiatric liner with up ta date tranquilliser drugs".“‘ While the Medical Superintendent at Karrsla House was experienced in the field of psychiatry, he was unable to provide any psychiatric treatment to the inmates of Karrala House because of the heavy demands already placed upon him in his other role as Medical Superintendent of the Ipswich Mental Hospital."’” No other member of the medical profession regularly visited the institution. lt was a common practice (continued by the evidence of former residents) that upon admission to Karrala House girls were given a gynaecological examination. Dr Atherton was of the opinion that in light of the nature of the lives some of the girls had been leading prior to admission, such a practice was necessary,""‘“ Apan from 3
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the Visiting Psychiatrm being called in to assist on the more dill-ioult cases, the only other regular visitors to the institution were a Child Welfare Officer and the Childrens Court Magistrate who attended on a monthly basis.""“' The Privilege § The Institution operated on a privilege system in which an inmate’s behaviour determined her quality of life while in confinement. In accordance with its role as a punishment centre, the first few weeks after admission to Karrala House were calculated to coerce new inmates into conforming to the behaviour expected of them. Each inmate was initially required to pass through a period of deprivation in the unprivileged side of the institution during which time her behaviour was under constant scrutiny, Once her behaviour was deemed to be satisfactory, she was ‘promoted’ to the privileged side. Any subsequent unsatisfactory behaviour, however, resulted in her ‘demotion’ to the unprivileged side. The process began immediately after admission, as a fomter inmate recalled: On admission. nz girl is first stripped and searched then must tak: a shower, She is admitted to Room 9 where she may stay from two tn six days. Here she sleqs on canvas sheets 011 the floor. Ihe window is closed and covered by a wooden board. The electric light 7'€llI˘1ilLY an all day. The girl sees no one while she is here. Her meals are sent in to her, She has some toilet arrangements in the room, Ste does not leave the mom at any tbne. After the girl leaves Room 9, she is tranniarred tn another room bt the 'unprivileged' section for approximately three weelev, although this penbd is determined to some extent by (a) her behavioun and fb) the number of girls already in the privileged’ sectllm. In the Wuprivileged’ section, the girls have no sheets on their beds. Zhey are allowed only two showers a week. They can wash their hair once a week, but are not allowed shampoo. Yhey must eat their food with a plastic spoon. Zhe girh get up at 5 am, dress, clean out their rooms then after breakjim at 7 spend the dey sewing in their rooms, They are provided with reading material, rminly the "classics’. Lights are turned out m 6 pm in the ‘unprivileged' seaion." This statement did not pass unchallenged by Superintendent Atherton, although his incidental conections did litt.le to enhance the image of the Institution or detract from what was rather a grim insight into the life of an inmate at Karrala House. In his detailed response, he dealt with each ‘allegation’ in turn, pointing out that a girl was not stripped on admission, but was asked to remove her clothes. Girls were not required to sleep on the floor in Room 9 as a mattress was provided for that purpose. Inmates in the unprivileged section were usually provided with ordinary sheets and blankets and were allowed to shower three times a week. Wake up time was at 6 am not 5 am, and lights Dill was at 8pm not 6pm.”“" Even with these amendments, it would appear that life in the unprivileged section would have been extremely harsh. Graduation to the privileged side of the institution did not, it seems, result in any appreciable improvement in conditions. In early 1967, the daily routine for the week consisted of lillle more than sewing during work hours, playing cards and board games or reading books during recreation time. The only advances during this time came in the form of small concessions. Girls were permitted, for example, to have extra possessions and some furniture in their roorns. They were allowed to shower every day and, if they wished, use shampoo received as gifts from visitors. They were given access to the institution’s yard during certain recreation periods and were able to associate with their peers. A greater range of books was provided and the girls were allowed to listen to a radio during their recreation time. However, even these “privileges” had their restrictions. Staff carefully vetted radio programmes, and girls were forbidden from adjusting the receiver. Girls were prohibited from engaging in “twisting, jiving, jitrerbugging or swearing”.”"“ Recreation and work hours were strictly 4
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2NJybLGbY,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,btFEJcLzQE,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUBppPIJXKa,Death,deGcDseovyiAwGm,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,etzFHAUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,hfeohBKw,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,KbVHDbYZIB,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kohtfscWRuY,KQkkUxjfknGg,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MYjbDrisq,nBnvotIbXTpU,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,PvMoGMfCpa,qHKBapjwYjPl,QJBYQgWSejpNLGNNyob,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,United Kingdom,uoSCFaBfYowmsiunWEN,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,yzGwrcJjpS,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,UFmcjuSUok,



regimeuxed. No talking was allowed during work activities or meal times. Only one period of recreation during die working day was enjoyed outside. All of the eleven former inmates who gave evidence to the Inquiry described a similar picture to that set out above. Accounts by some of the former inmates l'˘S&l'l|.3lKZl'l1|3H0l.lS˘(i|l.l'i.l`|g 1968, suggested that tlteymzy have suffered even harsher ueamientdtmdmtaheadydesclibui during dchpcdodofocminenwm, Two stated that they were not allowed out of seclusion to shower at all. Others described being stripped of their clothes and being left naked during their period of seclusion. Three described being beaten by smti and tharplaeed in seclusion after diey had mhised to eat food dtatwaslxxmtorummhtedweevhs and cockroaches. One former inmate claimed that she was beaten by staff in front of the other girls in the recreation room. Some former inmates resident at Kan-ala House shortly before or around this samed me, howeven did not report any physical abtlse during their confinement. Upon the opening of Karrala 2 in December 1968, changes were implemented as the gwemntmanempted to change the insnmtion from apunishntnt centre wa ym1thhospital.Wid1theinnoducdonofanewenphasisnponusessmemmd trmtment for emotionally disturbed girls, conditions at Kanala appear to have improved. While the privilege system still played an important role in the new institution, less emphasis was placed on punishment and there was a shih towards a child guidance approach. Recalcitrant girls and thou in the Observation Section of Kamla 1, for example. were no longer to remain in complete isolation, but were permitted, as soon as possible, the use of a recreation room.“"‘“ Girls in the Rerrtand Section of Karrala 1 were granted immediate privileges. These included television, radio and sporting equipment for indoor and outdoor activities. Services Provided for Residents Toiletries intlte form of soap noo thbms hand toodz powder werc provided to iIl!!Bl˘Sdl|IiDgKiICOD5l1€ll2lI\3(KIl'l1|3H(llS˘,“t 'Ihere was no shampoo for washing hair and girls used ordinary soap for this purpose. lntnates wete made to wash their hair onoe a Week, Some were permitted to use shampoo that they had received as a gift from their family. These girls were encouraged to share their gifts wirbtheod:ers.”“ I-Iaircuts were provifled by suaftandlitde, if any, styling was taken into consideration." Several former inmates confirmed how their hair was cut by staff. Each complained that it was chopped without any consideration of its appearance. One described being sprayed with a chemical tn remove body lice, “mlddtcnlwassmdouvtmtdthcyptdabasbtan my head and au my hair riglu q0‘ZMyhairwa.rdawr|p˘1.\'tmywai.t'ta1tll˘tim»˘”. Barber towels were provirhd for sanitary protection?" 1'he Inquiry was told that, during the early 1960s, girls were given their own “rags”, that they would clean and reuse. During the late 1960s, however, these “rags” were washed together in a bucket by two girls who had been allocawd the chore. They were then returned to a shelf for geneml use. Clothing was provided for the ixunates. Plastic sandals and scuffs were made available and were wom over socks during winter. Bobby socks were also made available for It appears that inmates were provided with a uniform during the working day. The food at Kamtla House was supplied by the Ipswich Mental Hospital and, accordingly, inmates received the same quality of food that patients enjoyed. Sometimes weevils would be found in the cereal supplied,“““' a fact confirmed by several former inmates in the evidence they provided to the Inquiry. Despite specific regulations requiring institutions to provide educational opportunities for those in care who had not reached official school leaving age, this was not offered at Karrala I-louse. The rationale for this omission was that any attempt to do so would be fruitless in light of the “type”of girl at KarralaHo\|se. Most inmates, it was contended, had a history of truantiug from school and had 5
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shown little interest in schooling.‘“" Very little was provided in the way of vocational training to assist girls in their re-integration to the community. Inmates performed industrial sewing as part of a daily working regime during their coniinement at Karrala House. As with the denominational homes, such training did little to enhance their employment opportunities upon release. Recreation Rooms were provided for inmates. Recreation periods were strictly regimentrd and were designed to tit in with the daily work routine, lnmates were also allowed two and a half hours on Saturday afternoons and four hours on Sunday as recreation. During these times, they were allowed outside in the yard. On occasions, picnic lunches were held under the IIOGS in the recreation area. However, recreanon outside was not permitted when the Ipswich Show was being held next door, because it was considered that even this limited contact with the community was detrimental and disturbing to the girls.""""‘ One former inmate, resident at Karrala House in 1968, complained that men from the adjacent mental hospital would try and climb over the fence to get at the girls and would sometimes masturbate in front of them. She claimed that staff would observe this and do nothing about it. It is not clear whether recreation time was improved after Karrala 2wasopenedinl968andorherchangesweremade. Inmates were only allowed to receive visits from their parents. However, this rule was relaxed in special cases where a grandparent wished to visit. Visiti.ng rights were not extended to the public. An inmate was searched before each visit and again after the visitor had leR.““'“ Prior to the changes incorporated aher the establishment of Karrala 2, the Ofticial Visitors to the institution included a Childrens Court Magistrate and a Departmental Welfare Oflieer. In the presence of the Superintendent and the Sister in Charge, the Visiting Magistrate would meet with inmates detained in the uxrprivileged side and inform them of their opportunity to speak with him about any matters of concern. He would check the Seclusion Book and sign it. He would then speak privately with each inmate in the privileged side. During this visit, girls were given the opportunity to CU!IlP|Ł.l.l1.““m One former inmate, resitknt at Karrala House during l963»64, ctmlirmed that a “judge” would come once a month total ktoher and the other girls and ask if they had any complaints. As she put it; All he'd.ray wus 'Is everything all right? Welbe lodedin solllary, no lighlr, nafresh dr, 'Is everything all riglu?’ Oh yeah. you .filly old dill, qf course it is...w˘'re having a wondziul time. Discgp' line Disciplinary problems were a constant burden for staff responshale for enforcing the rules at Karrala House. In its first year the Institution recorded 113 “girl incidents”. Typical offences included absconding, the use of obscene language and others to do likewise, assaults upon staff, resisting instructions from staff, tighting with each other, wiliixl destruction of property, concealing a spoon or wire and scratching obscenities on the walls of the rooms. The outcome of this initial twelve-month period was an upgrade of disciplinary procedures that had the effect of reducing serious incidents to about Z0 per year.“'" The administration invariably attributed the cause of such behaviour to the incorrigibility of the inmates. However, it is difficult to believe that this explanation could account for every incident of unrest. An examination of the Seclusion Book kept by the adrninistntion from 23 October 1963 to 3 November 1968 reveals consistent poor behaviour by inmates which resulted in them being placed in seclusion as a means of punishment and control. Various “crimes” (as they are described in the Bock) were recorded. Some of the entries are as follows: 6
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~ defiant in recreation mom - not eating a meal - 1 day ° talking while working - 2 days 0 obscene language, quarrelsome - I4 days » escape - 64 days Several of tl1e former inmates resident at Karrala during the 1960s who gave evidence to the Inquiry appear in the Seclusion Book; they confirmed the entries related to them. Two described being left in a seclusion room for long periods without light. As already noted, tl1e artificial light in the seclusion rooms was controlled externally, and whether light was permitted depended, according to these wimesses, on which staff were on duty. lt seems hardly surprising that resistance continued to be offered from girls confuied in an environment as impersonal and brutalising as Karrala House. An attempted absconding by three inmates from the ‘unprivileged’ section in April 1967 illustrates this point. Two of the three inmates were apprehended as they attempted to climb the fence. The other managed to elude staff and was later caught by the police. All of the girls were placed in seclusion for 29 days before being moved to a room with a wire shutter. It was revealed that the girl who had been on the run had used a pin to mutilate her body while in seclusion by scratching “I WANT T 0 G0 HOME” on her thigh. The girl had been at Karrala House for over eight months prior to the absconding. The particular facts of the case led the Director of Child1en’s Services to write to Superintendent Atherton and suggest that the girls be removed from solimry detention and placed in Karrala 2. The Director also proposed that the institution's policy on punishment be revised now that Karrala 2 had become available for use.” Atherton did not entirely disagree with the proposals made by the Director. He considered that if the girls were to be placed in Karrala 2 as suggested, they should remain in security and remain subject to the same privilege system that operated in Karrala 1. He also expressed the view that no change should be made to the policy on punishment that existed at Karrala House.““ The Director of Children's Services was initially reluctant no intervene. However, after further discussion with Atherton in this regard, the Director was able to persuade him to accept some change to the policy in place. One change included inmates being allowed, during t.he latter period of the confinement in the unprivileged side of Karrala House, to enjoy time in the second recreation room. Atherton resisted the Director’s suggestion that this change should commence immediately upon the girls being placed in the unprivileged side. The Director eventually acceded to Athertxufs wishes in this regard. It raises the question, however, as to just how effective the Director of Children’s Services was in fulfilling his guardianship responsibilities through the adoption of a course of reluctant intervention when the wellbeing of the girls in his care was at stake. Another fomi of resistance adopted by some girls at Karrala House was the practice of swallowing foreign objects such as pins, needles, staples, pieces of wire and hut1ons.““ The intention was to compel the authorities to arrange a temporary transfer to a hospital. The likelihood of an operation did not appear to deter some girls, who continued to re-offend despite having undergone surgery for past violations. This particular form of rebellion was a constant source of frustration for the staff. No matter what precautions were taken, girls regularly managed to locate small objects. It was the opinion of the Senior Medical Director, Dr BI Phillips, that girls who swallowed pins and other objects only did so to ensure their admission to Lowson House where they could have access to °‘boy.\', cigarettes and other tzrnenities"."““ Again, the assumption that any action on the part of the girls was inspired by a desire for mischief was evident. The possibility that the motivating factor for such behaviour could have been the harsh environment, or a general aversion to forced connnexnent, did not seem to be seriously considered. Several former inmates 7
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i described to the Inquiry how they had swallowed objects so that they would be removed from Karrala House. They cons&red placement in a mental hospital a far more attractive prospect than remaining at Karrala House. It seems that girls who were considered genuine suicide risks were transferred to Lowson House for observation." However, it was not uncommon, according to Mr Tooth, the Minister for Health, for iurnales to “simulate” suicidal tendencies while in seclusion at Karraia Housef" Once again it appears that no real consideration was given to the reason why, in the circinnstances, inmates chose to adopt tl1is course of action. Media Attention Karrala House tirst became the focus of media attendon after a press article was published in Brisbane on 20 December 1966. Allegations raised in that article prompted the Council of Social Services in Queensland to tum its attention to Karrala I-1ouse."‘“ On 30 April 1967, Karrala House was again thrust into the public eye when a Member of the Opposition raised questions about the use of “solitary confinement” in Parliament. The media responded by focussing even greater attention upon the institution. Criticism quickly followed from other interested parties. These included other Labor Members of Parliament, the Queensland Council of Social Services, the Ausnalian Psychological Society, the Australian Association of Social Workers, University staff bers, trade unions and members of the public.""“ Regular newspaper reports of the practices adopted at Karrala House ensured that the institution quickly attained a level of notoriety alcin to that of Westbrook in 1961."""“‘ One particular article published by the Ihah newspaper on 13 October 1968 spoke of a 12 year old girl who, it was alleged, had been held in virtual solitary confinement for 88 days. It was eventually revealed that the girl had in fact spent 88 days in the unprivileged side of Karrala House, 13 of which were actually spent in complete isolation.” Over the next few years, the Departments administering Kanala House were forced to field numerous requests for information and answer allegations regarding the methods employed at the institution. On one occasion it appears that even the Minister for Labour and Tourism, Mr Herbert, had difficulties in dealing with the alleganons made. On 16 May 1967, the Under Secretary of his Department was advised by the Department of Children’s Services that irunatm initially admitted to Karraia House could remain in Room 9 from anywhere up to 6 days. Nevertheless, in a radio interview on 26 July, the Minister made the following comments: A girl who stayed in Room 9 upon admission for more than 24 hours was somewhat remarkable. Anyone who stayed in there for more than 48 hours would be going close lo utablishing a record' While demands for an ofhcial inquiry were resisted, what seem certain is that the barrage of criticisms and public outcry at that time motivated the govemment to make some changes to the functions of Karrala House with a view to making the institution more akin to a youth hospital. On l November 1968, the Department of Children‘s Services and Health Department agreed to a new proposal regarding the future functions of Karrala 1-louse," Part of the proposal included the provision of professional services on an inpatient basis, including child psychiatry, clinical psychology, social work, occupational therapy, speech therapy, remedial, religious and other teaching, and other such services of a Child Guidance nature. It is not clear whether any of these services were implerrrnted prior to the closure of Karrala House. The institution was eventually closed in October 1971, after the inauguration of the new girls' section at Wilson Youth Hospital. All inmates remaining at Karrala House were transferred to this new Unit. 8
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‘ SBI 'B' Part 2 box 3064 “ AR 1953 ps ‘“ Medical Supt to Director of Mental Hygiene, 5 June 1962, DFYCC 7I/1 Part A. “' AR 1963 " Fowler and Hirschfield 1967 pp 6-7 "‘ Medical Supt to Director of Mental Hygiene, 5 June 1962, DFYCC 71/1 Part A. "“ Atherton colnnents on Karrala House 1967 "“‘ Sunday Mail 19-11-1967 “ Atherton' s comments on Allegations re Karrala House in 1957 X Sunday Mail 5-11-1957 “ Atherton comments on Karrala House 1967 ’“‘ File 1 Letter of the Opposition to the Minister for Labour and Tourism, 15” June 1967 ~ "M Atherton Comments on Karrala 1967 "“' Atherton Colmnents on Karrala 1967 "" 71/2 Mr. Herbert, to the Premier dated 15 June, 1966 ""‘ BJ Phillips, Senior Medical Director, to Director, Children's Services Department, 28 November 1968, DFYCC 7I/1 Part B ""“ Deputy Director, Department of Chi1dren's Services, to Minister for Health, 21 October 1968, DFYCC 7I/13 ”"“ 631 ‘s' part 2 box 3064 and 71/8 Part B A Howe letter to Dr Phillips dated 1a°" March 1969 *"‘ 71/13 oss Memo “_ 7I/1 Part B memo by D. Director 19” November 1963 ’““ 7I/3 D Director of DCS to The Minister 21 October 1968 ‘°‘“ Hirschfeld and Fowler 1967, pp 6-7 ‘°““ 71/1 Part A D Director Memo 29 March 1953 ’°“" 1-Iirschfeld and Fowler 1967, pp s-7 .\ ua ’°“’ Fowler and I-Iirschfeld, Insight, 1967 pp 7-B '°‘“ RA Atherton to Director, 15 May 1967, Labour and industry file one ’°"" R Kennedy, Visiting Justice, to Director, 9 April 1964, DFYCC 7I/? “""i“ 71/4 Dr McCutcheon to DCS 17 January 1969 ’°“" J Herbert, Minister for Labour and Tourism, to C Williams, 8 November 1967, Labour and Tourism file 1 ’°°‘ Comments by Dr Atherton re Karrala House 1967 W* 71/1 Part A D Dir Mem 20” March 1963 “’°‘“ 71/1 Part A Dir to Dept of Mental Health 19 December 1962 ’°°““ 71/1 Part A D Dir to Superintendent 29 March 1963 *"“' :I/7 Records 1964- sv Letter of the visiting Justice 9 April 1964 ‘°°“’ 71/13 D Dir Memo to Min 21 Oct 1968 ”°"" Atherton‘s Comments Re Karrala House 1967 ’°""“ R Kennedy, Visiting Justice, to Director, 9 April 1964, DFYCC 7I/'? ’°°"'“‘ File 1 Labour & Tourism CC Mag to Director of Chi1dren's Service 11 May 1967 "“"‘ Memorandum from BJ Phillips, Senior Medical Director, to CAP Clark, Director of Department of C11ildren's Services, 1 November 1968, DFYCC 71/8 Part B *J Memorandum from EL Feil, 24 April 1967, DFYCC 7I/8 Part A "“ RA Atherton to Director, 1 May 1967, Labour and Industry file, File 1 9
Edit Links2000-00-00 Queensland Karalla Closed Report Page: 10

Queensland Karalla Closed Report

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‘M See, for example, Director to Under Secretary, Department of Health, 8 August 1969, labour and tourism file no. 2 "lm EJ Phillips, Senior Medical director, to director, Department of Child.ren’s Services, 31 July 1969, DFYCC 71/B Part B "1" BJ Phillips, Senior Medical Director, to Director- General, Health and Medical Services, 2 April 1970, department of labour and industry file 2 “" 7I/13 Sunday Truth, Nov. 10, 1968 ’“"‘ File 1 Labour & Tourism Council of Social Service of Qld to the Minister of Labour and Tourism 1 Sept 1967 “V” Files 1 and 2 Labour & Tourism “"”‘ See, for example, Truth, 5 November 1967; and Courier Mail, 4 November 1967 "‘”‘ File 2 Labour & Tourism Director of Psychiatric Services to Under Secretary, Dept of Health 1 File 1 Labour & Tourism “ Memorandum from BJ Phillips, Senior Medical Director, to CAP Clark, Director of Department of Chi1dren's Services, 1 November 1968, DFYCC 7I/B Part B I0
Edit Links1999-12-23 To Whom it may concern Office of The premier Queensland

To Whom it may concern, Office of The Premier Queensland,



,Australia,



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1hXqayif,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,KTmySKXlCgfZsRM,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PvMoGMfCpa,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WFKWTOpIG,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YTuHqORwdOtFw,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,yzGwrcJjpS,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,bmkcoOxFX,



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Edit Links1999-09-03 Ex-priest jailed for rape

ex-priest-jailed-for-rape.jpg



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Edit Links1999-06-09 Asia-Pacific Australian orphanages 'abused children' [External Link]

Orphanages and juvenile detention centres in Queensland, Australia, have subjected children to serious physical, sexual and emotional abuse for more than 80 years. BBC News



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Orphanages and juvenile detention centres in Queensland, Australia, have subjected children to serious physical, sexual and emotional abuse for more than 80 years. An inquiry into child abuse in 150 government institutions from 1911 to 1999 found many children were "demoralised and brutalised" by the system. Anna Bligh: "Queensland has a long way to go until it can say it is caring for children properly" The report was delivered to parliament by Queensland Youth and Community Care Minister Anna Bligh, whose department commissioned the report. "The report concludes that significant numbers of children in Queensland institutions suffered serious physical, sexual and emotional abuse," Ms Bligh told the Queensland state parliament. "In many other cases there was a failure to provide for the basic needs of children -- emotional warmth, food, clothing and education." Continuing abuse The catalogue of ill-treatment includes flogging, sexual assaults, and at one institution, allegations of murders. In some cases children were found to have been given food containing weevils and being forced to eat on cockroach infested tables. As recently as the 1980s, children who wet the bed at night were routinely made to sit with the wet sheets on their heads at breakfast the following day. Queensland now relies less on large institutional care facilities and more on fostering, but Ms Bligh says children could still be at risk because adequate monitoring is still not in place. But the report recommends the government of Queensland spend another A$100 million (US$65 million) to develop options other than juvenile detention centres to house children. Queensland state premier, Peter Beattie, issued a formal apology to children who had been abused while they were in care. "You would have to have a heart of stone not to be moved by this report and I give an immediate and heartfelt personal apology as premier to those children today," Mr Beattie said. Criminal investigations The inquiry found 14 allegations of possible criminal conduct which the police will investigate. Details of conditions in two homes were not published in order not to prejudice future criminal proceedings. Ms Bligh said the report, which she delivered to parliament on Tuesday, "shines a light into a dark and shameful episode of our history". In the report, one man who had been in care as a child described "many, terrible floggings," which often left the subject with blood running down their backs. In another part of the report, a 12-year-old boy is alleged to have been sexually assaulted by a priest on 14 occasions over two and a half years.
Edit Links1999-06-09 Govt defends position but set to apologise to abused kids

Govt defends position but set to apologise to abused kids



aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,kixvykWbM,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,wpdmTAPBKYb,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,



Edit Links1999-06-09 Children handcuffed report finds





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Edit Links1999-06-09 Tales of Neglect across Queensland - Courier Mail





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Edit Links1999-06-08 Although it was individuals who perpetrated each act of abuse, they alone cannot shoulder the whole responsibility.





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"Although it was individuals who perpetrated each act of abuse, they alone cannot shoulder the whole responsibility. Some measure of responsibility must be taken by those to whom the abuses were reported and who did not act, those in charge of the institutions who did not have sufficient safeguards in place to protect the children, those members of religious organisations who turned a blind eye, the staff and the management of the Department of Children's Services who did not adequately monitor the children in their care, successive State Governments that have not sufficiently valued children to resource the department entrusted with their care, and society, which ignored or accepted what happened to children in the care of the State."
Edit Links1999-05-31 Letter to Minister 31.4.99.doc

Forde Inquiry Commissions of Inquiry Act 1950 COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY ORDER (NO. 1) 1998 TABLE OF PROVISIONS Section Page 1. Short Title ….…………………………………………………… 1 2. Commencement ………………………………………………… 1 3. Appointment of Commission …………………………………… 1 4. Applicable Act …………………………………………………… 2 5. Appointment of Chairperson ……………………………………. 2 6. Ministerial Directions……………………………………………. 3 Short Title 1. This Order in Council may be cited as Commissions of Inquiry Order (No. 1) 1998. Commencement 2. This Order in Council commences on 13 August 1998. Appointment of Commission 3. Under the provisions of the Commissions of Inquiry Act 1950 and all other enabling powers Leneen Forde AC, Jane Thomason and Hans Heilpern are appointed to make full and careful inquiry without undue formality with respect to the following matters:- A. (i) In relation to any government or non-government institutions or detention centres established or licensed under the State Children Act 1911, Children’s Services Act 1965 or the Juvenile Justice Act 1992: (a) whether any unsafe, improper or unlawful care or treatment of children has occurred in such institutions or centres; and (b) whether any breach of any relevant statutory obligation under the above



,Australia,Criminal Activity,



Edit Links1999-05-26 Inquiry head Leneen Forde expects a number of criminal charges Page: 1

Inquiry head Leneen Forde expects a number of criminal charges - How many actually occur?

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Edit Links1999-05-26 An extract from the keynote address presented by the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia Page: 1

Honorable Justice Alaistair Nicholson AO RFD to the 7th Australian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in Perth on 19 October 1999.

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Edit Links1999-05-26 An extract from the keynote address presented by the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia Page: 2

Honorable Justice Alaistair Nicholson AO RFD to the 7th Australian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in Perth on 19 October 1999.

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Edit Links1999-05-26 An extract from the keynote address presented by the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia Page: 3

Honorable Justice Alaistair Nicholson AO RFD to the 7th Australian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in Perth on 19 October 1999.

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Edit Links1999-05-26 An extract from the keynote address presented by the Chief Justice of the Family Court of Australia Page: 4

Honorable Justice Alaistair Nicholson AO RFD to the 7th Australian Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect in Perth on 19 October 1999.

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,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1999-03-31 Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999 Page: 2

Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999

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Edit Links1999-03-31 Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999 Page: 1

Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999

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Edit Links1999-03-31 Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999 Page: 3

Current Status - Queensland Catholic Clergy 31/3/1999

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1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,aCOj6iFwPFD2,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CIzQVwUJiEfGJAqPr,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,etzFHAUM,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,ihMSZkPIDBpzgfzqs,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,IMtuYfXNCPEdz,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,JhJqqiJAW,jJvCOENBbtPxmAjNtcb,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,KTmySKXlCgfZsRM,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,mkmqKTfx,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,rhaKFXV63,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rLeFlLTqKXADDPSQ,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tKnnJjqfiVRbO,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,UFmcjuSUok,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WesZeRGYtlJFf,WFKWTOpIG,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,yRunWkcIhO,YTuHqORwdOtFw,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,uDTGgnYHmMa,



Edit Links1999-03-20 A Political Kill [Indiscretion ends a political career] [External Link]

August 1997: Alford's report on paedophilia in Queensland is tabled in State Parliament and accuses the Criminal Justice Commission of failing to aggressively combat paedophile networks, and criticises the police Juvenile Aid Bureau and the Child Exploitation Unit for failing to give paedophilia a high priority. Alford says there is evidence that an interstate network of paedophiles, which included some high-profile Queensland figures, had been protected. A tug-of-war then develops between the Children's Commission and the CJC over files alleging official misconduct in relation to paedophilia.



Australia,Canada,Criminal Activity,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,Suspicious Activity,United Kingdom,,



Queensland's Children's Commissioner Norm Alford quit this week in the face of a Criminal Justice Commission investigation and revelations by The Courier-Mail. Michael Ware reports IT ALL began with the ramblings of a "drug-addicted transsexual". A man whose motives some tried carefully to dress up, using the subtlest of insinuations, as the perverse retribution of an unrequited love. But it ended with the political killing of a champion for children's rights. The ordeal has put the Queensland political system and the public through the sausage-grinder after a Criminal Justice Commission report this week forced ousted Children's Commissioner Norm Alford to resign. The Children's Commissioner's role was always going to be a tough one, with Alford making it clear his mission was to rid the state of paedophilia and protect the rights of children. "In my early 20s, when I was at university, I became shocked and acutely aware of the billions of hungry mouths in the world," he said. "I took a decision then that I wouldn't marry and contribute to the numbers of hungry mouths but I would do what I could to help the children already on the Earth." Within nine months, he was attacking the CJC and police for failing to aggressively combat paedophile networks -- immediately putting him at loggerheads over files alleging official misconduct in relation to paedophilia. On such a daring path he was bound to make enemies -- and he did in abundance. Not from the scores he helped but from those within politics who appeared to resent his uncompromising agenda. But Alford also had -- and has -- his backers who cling to the wispy vestiges of a conspiracy or, instead, struggle with their personal reconciliation of the enigma that is Norm Alford. They are trying to fit the man they knew as a bold adversary for children's rights to the now-bloodied image of the flawed public official. Alford, 65, is a gentle, affable man who came from a small country town called Traveston, near Gympie. A man who, it was reported, was the dux of his high school, and a prestigious Fulbright scholar who became a teacher and administrator. His career in the public service took him through the ranks of the Education Department, rising to become deputy director-general before taking a voluntary redundancy in 1990 with the change of government, only to return in 1996 as a researcher for the National Party family services minister. From there, he became Children's Commissioner. Even today, he maintains a strong interest in Traveston, where he owns five properties, as well as two houses in Brisbane's "old money" suburb of Graceville. He was not viewed by many as the ideal man for the job of Children's Commissioner, and even he admitted that he was not prepared for the role, telling the public service's in-house magazine 18 months ago that he "wasn't ready for the experience". As a servant of government, Alford achieved much. As Children's Commissioner, he did not resile from what he believed had to be done for the sake of what's right. In the performance of his official functions -- the watchdog over the treatment of children by government and the community -- it's hard to find an occasion when he wavered. This week, however, it all fell apart -- not so much because of his public role, but more because of the fact it had intersected with his private life. Alford quit over an alleged drug and misconduct scandal which has enveloped his former office. An interim CJC report claimed a member of his staff -- a 22-year-old man with whom Alford has admitted having a physical relationship -- had allegedly used Alford's government-supplied car to deal drugs and allegedly used government computers to download pornography. The young man was Michael Birnie, whom Alford met when the youth was a 17-year-old attendant at the McDonald's fast-food restaurant in Toowong Village. Alford, then working at various universities, helped Birnie with his tertiary applications. But it was later, as Children's Commissioner, that he employed or, at the very least, allowed to be employed on his staff that same young man. He then compounded his mismanagement by actions that suggest he protected and sponsored Birnie once he was given a junior administrative officer's job: twice reacting oddly to complaints of the young man's alleged wrongdoing. From the first day of his appointment as Children's Commissioner, there had been a smear campaign against Alford, for his role was an unpopular one, with faceless political advisers whispering mean-spirited nothings to journalists in the parliamentary gallery at the time of his 1997 paedophilia report. The attacks quickly became public, though, when he stoutly challenged the CJC and successive governments' histories of combating child sex issues. War erupted between his office and the anti-corruption body, with the Labor Party's forces on the flanks. And when allegations against him were made to his office and the police by a transsexual man who had befriended Birnie at a popular gay hotel, Alford claimed it was yet another smear campaign. But after a 16-week investigation, the "smear" has produced a case the CJC says Alford must answer. Meanwhile, police continue criminal investigations into unresolved allegations about Birnie's "unlawful drug-related activity" and pornography. The scandal started brewing last August, when the transsexual called the Children's Commission and made allegations about Birnie, drugs, the Commissioner's car and the Commissioner. As the CJC puts it, "rather than immediately refer the matter to the CJC, (Alford) directed that an internal investigation be conducted" into the young man with whom he had a physical relationship. The transsexual also went to the police, who launched a secret investigation. Alford gave the names of purported drug dealers, which the transsexual had provided, to a police assistant commissioner, unaware he himself was under investigation. About two weeks later, with the matter coming increasingly to a head within his own office, Alford bundled up his "investigation", including exculpatory statements for himself and Birnie, and sent it to then CJC chairman Frank Clair. Alford's lawyer claims that in the three months after he gave his file to the CJC, the Children's Commissioner "had not received a reply from the CJC" and at no time "did the CJC in any way criticise any action" he took. But on November 4, while he was being interviewed by The Courier-Mail, Alford rang Clair and spoke directly to him about the status of his information. It now appears Clair was necessarily circumspect. Later that month, Premier Peter Beattie learnt of the matter and empowered the CJC to take over the investigation, which tried, unsuccessfully, throughout December and January to interview Alford and an "uncooperative" Birnie. The CJC's governing body authorised use of the draconian "star chamber" on January 29 after Alford's lawyers notified investigators he would not speak to them of his own accord. During the star chamber's hearings between February 8 and 12, Alford admitted having a physical relationship with Birnie. That proved a mortal blow. IT'S an unexpected end for a Children's Commissioner who, before the furore, expressed a determination to "get on with his job", despite smear campaigns. But as a long-surviving bureaucrat, schooled in the hard politics of the Bjelke-Petersen era, he well knew what was at stake, the level of scrutiny he would be under and the real meaning of accountability of government. Wise in the ways of departmental politics, he spoke of personal victories over individual ministers in Bjelke-Petersen's former cabinets. He was no innocent abroad. In 1997, at the height of a tug-of-war over files about alleged official misconduct, he placed guards in his office to forestall any CJC raid. It was also he who repeatedly out-manoeuvred his own minister on a number of key issues while Children's Commissioner. But as he stepped down this week, he said that he felt privileged to have assisted victims of child abuse through his office, saying: "I trust they will accept me into their ranks as a co-victim of systemic abuse." While he made his enemies, though, Alford also made his friends and does not stand alone at this time. Some of those he once helped, particularly from former children's homes such as Neerkol, have rallied behind him, calling themselves Alford's Army and have launched a legally dangerous attack on those they believe are behind his downfall. The media also has come under attack. Critics have rejected the need for aggressive vigilance to ensure transparency in government and law enforcement. But when the Premier's advisers quip they do not advertise everything government does, when asked about a crucial review of crime-fighting agencies, many believe the need is clear, even when it comes to the Children's Commission. The question now is who will take on the vital role of Children's Commissioner. [SIDEBAR] December 1996: Norm Alford, former schoolteacher and research officer with the department of Families, Youth and Community Care, is appointed by the Borbidge Coalition government as Queensland's Commissioner for Children -- the first such appointment in Australia. Alford's suitability for the position is questioned because he is a childless bachelor. He says this is the result of a decision he made as a young man. June 1997: Alford refers two cases of alleged official misconduct by officers of the Families, Youth and Community Care Department to the Criminal Justice Commission. He attacks secrecy provisions contained in the Children's Services Act, saying they provide a shield for "unethical behaviour" by bureaucrats. August 1997: Alford's report on paedophilia in Queensland is tabled in State Parliament and accuses the Criminal Justice Commission of failing to aggressively combat paedophile networks, and criticises the police Juvenile Aid Bureau and the Child Exploitation Unit for failing to give paedophilia a high priority. Alford says there is evidence that an interstate network of paedophiles, which included some high-profile Queensland figures, had been protected. A tug-of-war then develops between the Children's Commission and the CJC over files alleging official misconduct in relation to paedophilia. September 1997: Alford upsets the people of Logan by calling the satellite city south of Brisbane "an unplanned social experiment" in a newspaper article. He also suggests, later in the month, that the State Government should consider castrating convicted paedophiles. March 1998: Alford attacks the Families, Youth and Community Care Department for contravening the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and says his office is receiving about 10 complaints a day about the department. April 1998: Alford calls for adoption reform and suggests the Government consider laws which would terminate the rights of natural parents who had chronically abused or neglected their children. August 1998: Alford's report on allegations of abuse at the Neerkol orphanage is tabled in Parliament. It claims the Families, Youth and Community Care Department hindered the investigation. November 1998: The Courier-Mail reports that Alford is at the centre of a police, CJC and Crime Commission investigation into the activities of a junior administrative officer on his staff who is a close personal friend. The allegations relate to how Michael Birnie, 22, was appointed to the commission, and use of Alford's government-supplied car to allegedly deal drugs. Alford himself says that he is being targeted in a smear campaign by a "drug addicted transsexual". Alford says there has been no physical or improper relationship between himself and Birnie, and denies wrongdoing over Birnie's appointment. Alford agrees to stand aside and Birnie is suspended on full pay during the investigation. December 1998: Investigations are intensified following the discovery of alleged child pornography on a Children's Commission computer. Photographs taken at Alford's home which suggest a "level of openness" between himself and Birnie are also said to exist. February 1999: Alford is summonsed to appear before a CJC investigative hearing to answer allegations of misconduct. March 1999: Birnie resigns from the public service. The Courier-Mail reports that Alford told CJC investigators under cross-examination during an investigative hearing that there was a physical element to his relationship with Birnie. Alford resigns on March 17 as Children's Commissioner, claiming he has been a victim of "systematic abuse" and has lost confidence in the CJC. "While maintaining absolute innocence of any wrongdoing, legal costs to date have been considerable and I simply cannot afford the further costs of pursuing justice through the legal system," Alford says in a statement.
Edit Links1999-03-06 Priest told of rape allegations

(Bishop informs rapist) A priest accused of raping a girl, 14, at the neerkol orphanage already knew of the allegations before police arrived to interview him, the District Court in Brisbane heard yesterday



,Neerkol,Australia,



A priest accused of raping a girl, 14, at the neerkol orphanage already knew of the allegations before police arrived to interview him, the District Court in Brisbane heard yesterday. The court was told bishop Brian Heenan rang Reginald Basil Durham about a complaint from a woman living in Western Australia that she was sexually abused at the orphanage 30 years ago.
Edit Links1999-03-04 The Forde Commission - THE SHREDDING

This submission is written in good faith and in the public interest. It is totally documented. It contains compelling evidence of the possible illegal conduct concerning the governance of Queensland and the welfare of children held in care and custody by the Crown.

0

,Child Abuse,Australia,



Edit Links1998-04-14 Director of Public Prosecutions re REGINALD BASIL DURHAM Page: 1

1998-04-14-dpp-1.jpg

1

Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Queensland,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,tJicFoJnWrgOP,



Edit Links1998-04-14 Director of Public Prosecutions re REGINALD BASIL DURHAM Page: 2



2

Australia,Criminal Activity,Neerkol,,



Edit Links1998-04-14 Director of Public Prosecutions re REGINALD BASIL DURHAM Page: 3



3

Australia,Criminal Activity,Neerkol,,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 1

I am 49 years old and I am an invalid pensioner

1

2NJybLGbY,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,bnKkIcTmQMQr,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,deGcDseovyiAwGm,DKVpumolzPDLoN,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBUdxAfbzLLo,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kohtfscWRuY,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,Suspicious Activity,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,yzGwrcJjpS,zblVDreIx,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,etzFHAUM,



fx ff X e' L/ rjf(i'l'? /VM if “Q I \_“_ frfron STATES I am 49 years old and I am an invalid pensioner. I was bom on the llth of November, 194| at Mackay Hospital in Queensland. My natural mother is and my natural father is When I was about nine or ten months old my two older sisters and two older brothers and myself were sent to St Josephs Home, Neerkol because my father couldn’t look aher us. ‘ My sisters names are and _ _ My brothers are and We all got split up in the sense that the girls slept in one donn and the boys in another, Every Sunday Jack -and Jimmy _ used to come to the orphanage and take all the boys to the swimming hole or the sand hills, where we would swim or Hsh. I remember one day when we went to the swimming hole with Jack It was a sunny day in summer. This particular day Jack grabbed me and sat me on his knee in the shallow water. I stCi23 47 r” *Y A lm ,ppb I
Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 2

While I was sitting on his knee Jack put his hand down my pants and started pulling my old fella.

2

47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,DKVpumolzPDLoN,eHrXKQjlC,etzFHAUM,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IFAdXcZupG,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kklLOXuxZna,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kPQ6C9dM,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,nBnvotIbXTpU,Neerkol,Neglect,OJawjIsMiZa,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,rLeFlLTqKXADDPSQ,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sCdaKSuvzK,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UFmcjuSUok,ujjaAACqS,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wnQoXKOSLirBnj,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,yzGwrcJjpS,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,ZhekwOLTLFxRAxnwME,



»> Statement o continued was wearing only bathers which were khaki pants. Jack had togs on. By togs I mean bathers. While I was sitting on his knee Jack put his hand down my pants and started pulling my old fella. By old fella! mean penis, I tried to get away but I ::ouldn’t because he had a hold of me. This was the first time this had ever happened to me I remember it was about 1956 or l957, There was another incident with- It was a Sunday and we went to the swimming hole. It was summer. This time we were in the deep end of the swimming hole, I had my khaki pants on and _ had bathers cn. _ grabbed me, put his hand down my pants and masturbated me. -told me nm ifi didn’t do as he said he would dunk me and hold my head under the water. One other time, it was Sunday and it was summer, we went to the swimming hole with-. This time we were making tin canoes, I needed help with my canoe and was told by-to follow him behind the bushes if I wanted him to help me. While behind the bushes he pulled my pants down and masturbated me with his hand. I remember on another occasion on a Sunday I went with Jimmy _ dovim to the creek with some other big boys. It was summer time, st:i2347
Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 3

He then grabbed me and laid me on top of him. He was also laying down. The other boys were around us smoking

3

,Neerkol,Australia,Criminal Activity,Queensland,Death,Neglect,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 4

On this particular day we went back to where Jimmy was. We dropped our pants and Jimmy came along and brushed the sand off our bums and old fellas.

4

,Neerkol,Australia,Criminal Activity,Queensland,Death,Neglect,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 5

On this particular occasion I was an altar boy at benediction. It was a Sunday

5

,Neerkol,Australia,Criminal Activity,Queensland,Death,Neglect,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 6

If we were rostered for mass during he week we would have to get to church early, so we could get everything ready. Father DURHAM would be there, usually before the nuns got there.

6

,Neerkol,Australia,Criminal Activity,Queensland,Death,Neglect,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 7

During my time at the orphanage I used to get passed from nun to nun. They used play with my old fella, by play I mean masturbate. They used to touch me up all the time

7

Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,Canada,CErFStBLEAULjV,Criminal Activity,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,oqwNpPHuj,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,Vaccination,VOLPMnWXGnTr,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 8

On the way to the boundary I asked Bill if he knew anything about the graves. He said that there were unborn and born babies buried there. There were no headstones and no markings they were just holes covered up.

8

Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,fmpKiaHUM,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,eHrXKQjlC,



Edit Links1998-00-00 SRM Neerkol Statement Page: 9

I declare this statement is true to the best of my knowledge and belief and that I have made this statement knowing that if it is tendered in evidence I will be guilty of a crime if I have wilfully included in this statement anything which I know to be false or that I do not believe is true.

9

1hXqayif,47bcMs9yCPJI,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUBppPIJXKa,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,etzFHAUM,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hfeohBKw,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IFAdXcZupG,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,KQkkUxjfknGg,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OJawjIsMiZa,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PvMoGMfCpa,qHKBapjwYjPl,QJBYQgWSejpNLGNNyob,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,rhaKFXV63,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,rVNZAjFWWfUtEnIx,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tKnnJjqfiVRbO,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,UFmcjuSUok,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,YhOQHcUv,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,yRunWkcIhO,



Edit Links1998-00-00 The Problem of Pedophilia [External Link]

Editor's note: Through publicity generated by this paper, and followed up by radio personality Dr. Laura Schlessinger and the Family Research Council, the American Psychological Association and (even more strongly) the American Psychiatric Association have issued statements clarifying that they reject the normalization of pedophilia. We applaud them for making such a strong public statement. Yet we continue to see editorials which defend the A.P.A. for offering a publishing platform to researchers who fail to see pedophilia as intrinsically harmful. Some well-known psychologists say they see no conclusive evidence of harm to victims of pedophilia. Furthermore, the Journal of Homosexuality continues to prominently feature articles which champion the pedophile-rights movement. We hope that the A.P.A.'s will continue to reject the claims of pedophile advocates. As a final step, we would like to see the American Psychiatric Association revise its diagnostic terminology back to its former definition, which leaves no room for the possibility of a "psychologically normal" pedophile.



aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,btFEJcLzQE,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gdfYHVCRn,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



Edit Links1997-06-11 Vaccines tested on Australian orphans [External Link]

Vaccines tested on Australian orphans



Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,Criminal Activity,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,United Kingdom,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



Vaccines tested on Australian orphans Robert Milliken Sydney Wednesday, 11 June 1997 * Share The Independent Close o DiggDigg o del.icio.usdel.icio.us o FacebookFacebook o RedditReddit o GoogleGoogle o Stumble UponStumble Upon o FarkFark o NewsvineNewsvine o zYahooBuzz o BeboBebo o TwitterTwitter o Independent MindsIndependent Minds * Print * Email * Text Size o Normal o Large o Extra Large Sponsored Links An outcry erupted in Australia yesterday over revelations that hundreds of orphan babies and small children were used as guinea pigs in experiments on vaccines for herpes, whooping cough, influenza and other diseases, for 25 years after the Second World War. Former wards of state demanded a judicial inquiry after it was disclosed that some of the tests did not work, failed to pass safety tests in animals and caused vomiting, abscesses and other side-effects in babies. The revelations came in a report in the Age newspaper of Melbourne, which outlined seven separate cases of such experiments taking place in orphanages in Victoria state between 1945 and 1970. The experiments were conducted under the auspices of the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, one of Australia's most prestigious research institutions, and the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, then a federal government body. They took place without the consent of any of the children's parents at a time when orphanages were crowded with state wards under an official policy that children from poor families and single parents should be placed under the care of the state. Such policies continued until the 1970s. Michael Wooldridge, the federal minister for health, said last night that the experiments should never have happened. He said they were conducted according to the medical ethics of the day and should not be judged by today's standards. "We will do everything we can to put people's minds at rest." According to the Age, researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall institute began work to develop a vaccine against herpes simplex by conducting experiments on babies in 1947 at Broadmeadows Babies Home, an institution run by the Roman Catholic Sisters of St Joseph. They chose the state wards because the infectious virus thrived in cramped living conditions and was believed to be "predominantly a disease of the poorer classes". The experiments failed. Some of the vaccinated babies caught herpes. In another experiment, researchers from the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory tested combined antigens for whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus on wards aged between three months and almost three years, from three Melbourne babies' homes. A separate experiment by the same institution, involving 350 babies, was conducted over three years up to 1970. In this trial, to reduce the side-effects of influenza vaccines in infants, the babies were given full adult doses of the test vaccine. David Vaux, the Walter and Eliza Hall institute's spokesman, said yesterday that medical ethics committees with strictrules for informed consent on such trials had not been "invented" at the time. "There were epidemics at the time of infectious diseases killing large numbers of children, especially at these institutions where conditions were very crowded. The sisters-in-charge were desperate to try to prevent their children from dying." Why the experiments on a non-life threatening condition such as herpes? "The authorities were interested in preventing children from suffering from herpes," Dr Vaux said. Former wards who believe they might have been used as guinea pigs are demanding access to their medical records. Heather Bell, a Melbourne woman used in one trial as a baby, and now a spokesperson for a group representing former wards of state, said yesterday: "We want a government inquiry. The government were totally responsible for these children and they used them as guinea pigs. Would you use your children for medical experiments?"
Edit Links1997-06-03 Police start high tech soil search for orphans

Police start high tech soil search for orphans



Neerkol,,,Australia,



Edit Links1997-04-20 Forensic experts to advise on Orphanage claims

Forensic experts to advise on Orphanage claims



Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,btFEJcLzQE,CErFStBLEAULjV,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,EKjDoeFXtysT,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,Neglect,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,oqwNpPHuj,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,tPQarDZlQmd,United Kingdom,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,



Edit Links1997-04-17 Body body search





,,Australia,



Edit Links1997-04-17 Orphan grounds searched





,,Australia,



Edit Links1997-01-31 The Congregation for the Clergy has attentively studied the complex question of sexual abuse



0

,Catholic Abuse,Ireland,



Edit Links1997-00-00 Suffer the children





1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,Death,deGcDseovyiAwGm,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ERxYcTdzlQv,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,gPwpw2QNGh49,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MYjbDrisq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,OJawjIsMiZa,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCdaKSuvzK,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,uoSCFaBfYowmsiunWEN,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,VBAtKShREs,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,kklLOXuxZna,



Edit Links1995-03-28 Railways ??





,,Australia,



Edit Links1993-00-00 Convent buried 80 unnamed women Ireland

Convent buried 80 unnamed women Ireland



,,Australia,



Edit Links1979-04-30 Ward Street inappropriate behaviour 295 -

The closing of Neerkol - applied to buy Ward street Ward Street inappropriate behavior (license taken away for 12 months - then returned)



,Australia,

Paid for with subsidy grants - ref valuation of Neerkol - apply for a subsudy so they could buy Ward street

Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 1 - Director of Children's Services $1,035,290.00 Page: 1

Director Children's Services Valuer General - Describes the buildings at Neerkol

1

,Australia,

Asbestos is described in the report Where is the Infirmary

Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 2 Page: 3



3

,Australia,



Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 3 Page: 5

No sign of an Infirmary Describes the building around the orphanage

5

,Australia,



Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 4





Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,Canada,Criminal Activity,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,Incompetence,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Neerkol,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,Queensland,Suspicious Activity,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xmqyFrlGum,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,



Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 5





Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,Canada,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Death,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,KQkkUxjfknGg,Neerkol,Neglect,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,



Edit Links1977-12-19 Neerkol Evaluation 6





General,Australia,



Edit Links1970-00-00 Subsidies paid to St Josephs Home Neerkol 1957-58 1970-71 Page: 1



1

1hXqayif,aCOj6iFwPFD2,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,BzeGdTTqQz,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,fmpKiaHUM,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,OJawjIsMiZa,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,PvMoGMfCpa,Q2OpLVx5ybh,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,rVNZAjFWWfUtEnIx,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,vMBsKPaN,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,yzGwrcJjpS,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,



Edit Links1970-00-00 Photo of Neerkol Children 1970

Can you name any of these children?

0

,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1965-11-26 Water Supply St Josephs home Neerkol

Water Supply, St Josephs - Neerkol Analysis of water sample - highly salty, suitable for stock watering and irrigation From the creek - asbestos pipes rain water taken off asbestos roof



,Australia,

Doc was for Durham????

Edit Links1963-06-30 The Director State Children Department

The Director State Children Department payments to mothers adn otherrelatives



,,Australia,



Edit Links1963-06-30 The Director State Children Department - properties





,,Australia,



Edit Links1963-00-00 Childrens court and child delinquency





1hXqayif,47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,deGcDseovyiAwGm,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,fmpKiaHUM,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,geGJhZWDMTqJJdDzUd,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iRfvQLmHXyHAGfMuQr,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kohtfscWRuY,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LbAAklFevEMtOxomxt,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,mkmqKTfx,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,OJawjIsMiZa,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,OLzogdKrphIK,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,rhaKFXV63,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,rVNZAjFWWfUtEnIx,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,uoSCFaBfYowmsiunWEN,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WesZeRGYtlJFf,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,nBnvotIbXTpU,



Edit Links1963-00-00 Childrens court and child delinquency Page: 2



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aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,okOjdzMU,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,qHKBapjwYjPl,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,UYhyIUvYAR,VBAtKShREs,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,



Edit Links1963-00-00 Childrens court and child delinquency





Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,LBURVTYkif,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oqwNpPHuj,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,



Edit Links1959-05-00 Meteor Park, Neerkol via Rockhampton - statistics and payments received Page: 1

St Joseph's home Meteor Park, Neerkol via Rockhampton - statistics and payments received

1

Neerkol,,,Australia,



Edit Links1959-05-00 Meteor Park, Neerkol via Rockhampton - statistics and payments received Page: 2

St Joseph's home Meteor Park, Neerkol via Rockhampton - statistics and payments received

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1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,mkmqKTfx,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RLulnRNphK,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WesZeRGYtlJFf,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,yzGwrcJjpS,



Edit Links1957-00-00 Subsidies paid to St Josephs Home Neerkol Page: 1

Subsidies paid to St Josephs Home Neerkol 1957-1964

1

,Australia,

The children did not get to eat the food produced Land Tax exemption for Neerkol --- ????? complaints re the church being exempted from land taxes

Edit Links1957-00-00 Subsidies paid to St Josephs Home Neerkol Page: 2

Subsidies paid to St Josephs Home Neerkol

2

Australia,Incompetence,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,United Kingdom,Vaccination,



Edit Links1956-04-17 re: Distribution of "Salk" vaccine

re: Distribution of "Salk" vaccine Distributed in 1956 in the Institutions - Publicly released in 1960



,Australia,



Edit Links1955-00-00 Institutions in Australia - Summary of the work state children were used for Page: 1

Institutions in Australia - Summary of the work state children were used for - statistics data 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946

1

Neerkol,Suspicious Activity,,,Australia,



Edit Links1955-00-00 State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park Page: 1

State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park State Children Department - the employment of children at St Joseph's home Neerkol re the "unusual" practice of hiring children. This is a "wonderful" report whilst doctors reports were documenting the abuses against and deaths - Hypocrisy from our government

1

Incompetence,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,Suspicious Activity,,,Australia,



Edit Links1955-00-00 State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park Page: 2

State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park State Children Department - the employment of children at St Joseph's home Neerkol re the "unusual" practice of hiring children. This is a "wonderful" report whilst doctors reports were documenting the abuses against and deaths - Hypocrisy from our government

2

47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kPQ6C9dM,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WesZeRGYtlJFf,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,OiQPVhChRZpdz,



Edit Links1955-00-00 State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park Page: 3

State Children in employment, Neerkol Meteor Park State Children Department - the employment of children at St Joseph's home Neerkol re the "unusual" practice of hiring children. This is a "wonderful" report whilst doctors reports were documenting the abuses against and deaths - Hypocrisy from our government

3

1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,mkmqKTfx,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OiQPVhChRZpdz,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,QgMuTpLnaxBTQ,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,Queensland,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,ujjaAACqS,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wcIkGbmL,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,yeuGnjfvBa,YhOQHcUv,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YVWaXZnBNdlS,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,IhnNQArRHBruCHIv,



Edit Links1954-06-02 Want Sterilisation Of Sex Offenders [External Link]





,



Edit Links1953-01-08 Approval to immunize

Approval for Dr Gordon to immunize whooping cough and tetanus 2/6 per child



,Australia,Canada,Criminal Activity,Death,General,Incompetence,



Edit Links1953-01-08 Approval to immunize Dr Gordon

Approval to immunize, Dr Gordon, Neerkol



,Australia,

REPEAT OF DOC 4 -

Edit Links1952-12-08 Approval to immunize Whooping cough & tetanus

Approval to immunize for whooping cough & tetanus



,Australia,

Where they immunized more than once?

Edit Links1952-09-30 Immunization of children at St Josephs home

Immunization of children, St Josephs home,Johnson,Diptheria,ptap, anatoxin 7 dozen X1 Diptheria Prophylactic (PTAT)



,Australia,

What is PTAT ???

Edit Links1952-09-30 Remuneration 1952 Page: 1

Remuneration 1952, copy, diptheria Commonwealth Department of Health Free Immunization

1

,Australia,



Edit Links1952-09-30 Forward 7 dozen X1 CC Diptheria Prophylactic (PTAP) Page: 1

Forward 7 dozen X1 CC Diptheria Prophylactic (PTAP) to Dr Gordon Commonwealth Public Health

1

,Australia,



Edit Links1952-08-19 Approval given to immunize Page: 1

Approval given to immunize 34 migrant, 20 State and 37 private children

1

,Australia,

Immigrant children receiving different sorts of vaccines ???????????

Edit Links1952-04-00 Recent Advances in Pertussis Immunisation

Recent Advances in Pertussis Immunisation Sounds like the vaccine is a new one



,Australia,



Edit Links1951-09-26 Contract of hiring children in and from orphanages

Contract of hiring children in and from orphanages Neerkol



,,Australia,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 1

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

1

,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 2

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

2

,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 3

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

3

2NJybLGbY,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,JhJqqiJAW,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,sCdaKSuvzK,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,Suspicious Activity,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WesZeRGYtlJFf,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XzMfMMnMFy,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 4

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

4

Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gdfYHVCRn,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,jHENLJffEC,kixvykWbM,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nVrMUAeR,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,Queensland,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tPQarDZlQmd,United Kingdom,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,yaQblAQoYH,zblVDreIx,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 5

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

5

47bcMs9yCPJI,aCOj6iFwPFD2,aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BGOXjFKimjy,BGOXjFKimjy,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,BuKAoAplcyrmVmwS,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ErDuyffm,ERxYcTdzlQv,fmpKiaHUM,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,GDsBOzXpxe,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,iPyHeBXe,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JeqmuCVtQZjLjJpa,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,KXBTlxEUoWvgKgqHl,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OJawjIsMiZa,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pbbFqLyZEkSbfzLGP,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,RIKbJMbtKoQAk,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rlAZDvCwLMnQ,rLeFlLTqKXADDPSQ,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sTgobvkFSc,tKnnJjqfiVRbO,UctCEBEwqRI,uppamjKV,VBAtKShREs,vMBsKPaN,VqYifVDATssPBEtlKV,VsuXpJdtzgVySGCBU,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,WFcgBpuSCtTNaAqA,wnQoXKOSLirBnj,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yRunWkcIhO,YVWaXZnBNdlS,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZhekwOLTLFxRAxnwME,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZrxkEOPebePpcVHTA,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,KTmySKXlCgfZsRM,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 6

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

6

Australia,bnKkIcTmQMQr,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Death,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,tPQarDZlQmd,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 7

Pages 1 to 4 of this set are the most relevant to Neerkol

7

,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1948-11-00 The Review Official Organ of the Diocese of Rockhampton Page: 8

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8

1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,aCOj6iFwPFD2,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bnKkIcTmQMQr,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,EKjDoeFXtysT,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,JhJqqiJAW,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kPQ6C9dM,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PvMoGMfCpa,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,R5IT1BeYkE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCdaKSuvzK,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,



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Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gdfYHVCRn,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,Neerkol,Neglect,NSSCxTau,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,tPQarDZlQmd,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,



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1hXqayif,2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,I9UiVjl4AXCR,IFAdXcZupG,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,KbVHDbYZIB,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,kPQ6C9dM,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LuCXDBRfJtzbneO,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,Medical Issues,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,PvMoGMfCpa,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,Q2OpLVx5ybh,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,QTvqslTnHfKMlMFN,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,rhaKFXV63,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RLulnRNphK,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCdaKSuvzK,sSBqItIF,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yeuGnjfvBa,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,



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ZeIVZHPxXFP,,Q2OpLVx5ybh,



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Australia,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,btFEJcLzQE,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,ellpyXjQJNy,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,NSSCxTau,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,sSBqItIF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,yaQblAQoYH,



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2NJybLGbY,47bcMs9yCPJI,AHFbVrf8Ibx,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DYHatjFtom,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBUdxAfbzLLo,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,kixvykWbM,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kPQ6C9dM,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,Medical Issues,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,R5IT1BeYkE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,sTgobvkFSc,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UYhyIUvYAR,VBAtKShREs,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wAsrwXajCpAWMrn,wpdmTAPBKYb,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wWReOeYCUZaib,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xmqyFrlGum,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,ZYIsvjToUCTBzaH,



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1hXqayif,47bcMs9yCPJI,Australia,aVcTquUgNrboxbBf,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BzeGdTTqQz,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CCJ4mpxiZbK,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DKVpumolzPDLoN,DQzUgYbPfuC,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,fWxAFEGXLnTSPqiEmv,FZAMjOcB,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,gPwpw2QNGh49,GPyHnNMf,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,hLOoswCqkfangNNrCO,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,HqgFdsgFlMObt,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixnVTvpAioyOxTPHpRp,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,JhJqqiJAW,jQIrHLtt,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,jTpmbAqQbyNfHTiqYP,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KDIqMijMRCaFWXd,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,KMRHPVIpNvnVAvajDHa,kNpufgTBpJTWd,LBURVTYkif,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,lcbKLgIKIoNvnmAShhb,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,limLiYkiESKKo,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,LJIcQBGKFSZYqMd,lvlXSTnGzKZdfHEjOxx,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,mdKMfJatbk6,MmSjYBxwkNnwLWEl,MYjbDrisq,Neerkol,Neglect,nVrMUAeR,OfZfyMrCrSYLaVujq,okOjdzMU,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,okZZwuanTtFOcwJeYYX,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pjuNlGTnGYyWuyfX,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,R5IT1BeYkE,rhaKFXV63,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,RRfKQceF,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,wzBZBqmrfXvLJ,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZGDNyKyqsJZwSLFUiXI,ZWuHUpdeO,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,ZXyYyfdUHMjdji,,XzMfMMnMFy,



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,Neerkol,Australia,



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,Neerkol,Australia,



Edit Links1944-01-29 LETTER FROM HOME Fix this text News For The Boys In The Services [External Link]





Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,gdfYHVCRn,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,oqwNpPHuj,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qHKBapjwYjPl,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xfTDZIxT,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,,



Edit Links1941-00-00 Institutions in Australia - Summary of the work state children were used for Page: 2

Institutions in Australia - Summary of the work state children were used for - statistics data 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946

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General,,,



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Institutions in Australia - Summary of the work state children were used for - statistics data 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946

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,,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Page 1



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 2

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Page 2



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 3

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Page2 2 and 3



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 4

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 4 & 5



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 5

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 10 & 1



Australia,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,Incompetence,jHENLJffEC,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,Neerkol,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,qHKBapjwYjPl,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,Suspicious Activity,United Kingdom,Vaccination,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZeIVZHPxXFP,,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 6

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 8 & 9



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 9

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 12 & 13



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 10

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 14 & 15



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 11

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 14 (????) & 17



General,Australia,



Edit Links1938-04-30 The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935

The Infant Life Protection Acts, 1905 to 1935 Pages 18



General,Australia,



Edit Links1933-05-03 Ten death - serum poisoning - Negligence alleged

Ten children have died and a large number are seriously ill in Venice, Milan, Genoa, and else- where, as a result of their inocula- tion by anti-diphtheria serum pre- pared at the Naples Institute. An official communique states: "Owing to deplorable negligence a quantity or antitoxins, aftei they had been passed by the laboratory of the Health Bin eau, weie subjected to fuither manipulation and mixed with others "



aFgiXjPhZ,Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,AZZadnwVnFMsVNgm,bDBGkeNNtRQgPIGM,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,bujKxPgFjQtopPte,Canada,cBwiSkoUTuYzIwNGUZ,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Criminal Activity,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,datgGLpwxcV,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,eHrXKQjlC,EKjDoeFXtysT,ellpyXjQJNy,ErDuyffm,EziaQkSlkIhZpgDi,fmpKiaHUM,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,FUDVtCMtONxtxVo,FZAMjOcB,gdfYHVCRn,General,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,GMZibZBMmlEITFJ,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,HLoldUsIDcoIGy,HMzZyzIWZZeZs,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IBAWcpGRQKIseiuTB,IBUdxAfbzLLo,IFAdXcZupG,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,JvfzCHDQeebphL,KbVHDbYZIB,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,kNwJbQrApVsNuONX,KQkkUxjfknGg,LBURVTYkif,LzHncNFHRFHKYX,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neerkol,Neglect,NfkPRpcYFPPgrxXmV,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,NSSCxTau,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,OymRNtmDCKkBQ,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pfVeaNNTLzkMGTqU,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,PwzsQpZzzTTIuvhPt,qHKBapjwYjPl,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,Queensland,quJzKUYWSfqEejckPE,RkdtFwcHHAZg,rPmvBzGnIBVRIFt,rsyDEbFdLArItkyTjKs,RyyZHiveMrgzfC,sCMOlInpHkYIZYuLMt,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,sSBqItIF,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tJicFoJnWrgOP,tPQarDZlQmd,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,United Kingdom,uppamjKV,UYhyIUvYAR,Vaccination,VBAtKShREs,VHAOVaUPZdZz,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,wpdmTAPBKYb,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,xPixkIODeqOYOucVWPU,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,ZWuHUpdeO,,



TEN DEATHS. Serum Poisoning. -» NEGLIGENCE ALLEGED. ROME, May 1. Ten children have died and a large number are seriously ill in Venice, Milan, Genoa, and else- where, as a result of their inocula- tion by anti-diphtheria serum pre- pared at the Naples Institute. An official communique states: "Owing to deplorable negligence a quantity or antitoxins, aftei they had been passed by the laboratory of the Health Bin eau, weie subjected to fuither manipulation and mixed with others " The director, Professor Terni, and his assistant have been arrested and charged with criminal negligence. The affected children are being treated by Italy's foremost specialists As the incubation period in the case of the majority of those vaccinated has passed, or is being passed, it is hoped that there will be no more dearths. No Danger in Queensland. "Antitoxin is the mateiial which is utilised in the rtieatmcnt of diph- theria," explained the Commissioner of Public Health, Dr. J. Coffey, yester- day He said that by its use hun- dí eds of thousands of lives have been saved Very few people to-day would refuse its use in the treatment of diphtheiia, but would lather create an uproar if a hospital or doctor failed to use it This material should not be confused with the material used as a preventative When protective measures were first mooted antitoxin was mixed with the toxin or poison pioduced by the germ which causes diphtheria. This tech- nique was not ideal, and was aban- doned in Australia after the unfor- tunate accident at Bundaberg The preparation, anaioxin, which has now been in use in Queensland foi several years, approaches the ideal moie than any othei prophylactic agent against diphtheria, as it con- tains no toxin, is not a serum, is in formalin solution, and is supplied in sleiile glass containers, each contam- ine one dose. Tlie Commonwealth Sei um Labora- tories in Melbourne manufacture the mateiial and .thoioughly test each batch several times in diveise ways before any of it is supplied to the public Wherever it has been in use in Queensland to any appieciable ex- tent it has had a íemai kable Influence in reducing the incidence of diphtheiia, and this at a time while unimmun ísed places were showing a definite inciease. There have been no un- pleasant results associated with its use hoie 01 m the lest of the woild, where millions of children lave been suc- cessfully immunised Queensland is well over the 51,000 maik By its use he was confident that diphtheiia would be wiped out of this Stafe, providing the people whole- heartedly suppoit the campaign "Immunisation with anato\in," he Fix this text added, "is a safe and reliable method of pi eventing diphtheiia, and I have no hesitation in îecommending it."
Edit Links1932-08-01 Separation of Church and State (Spain)

Separation of Church and State (Spain)



,,Australia,



Edit Links1931-12-08 MENTAL DEFECTIVES Should They Be Sterilised ? [External Link]





Australia,,



Edit Links1931-12-08 MENTAL DEFECTIVES j Should They Be Sterilised ? COMMITTEE SUGGESTED [External Link]





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Edit Links1931-12-07 MENTAL DEFECTIVES STERILISATION URGED Bishop Barnes Outspoken "CLERGY LACKING IN DUTY" [External Link]





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Edit Links1931-01-19 After Vaccine Death in Hospital

After Vaccine Death in Hospital



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Edit Links1931-01-17 After Vaccine Two men die [External Link]

Annie Todd of Given-ten ace Pad- dington, step-sister of the deceased Charles Alfred Intrup stated that he was admitted to the Brisbane General Hospital on November 4 1930 suffei ing from rheumatism He was under treatment by Dr A Murphy She last saw her step-brothei at the hos- pital during \ ¡siting hours on January 4, when he complained of feeling un- well, having received an injection at about 1 o clock that afternoon He informed hei that pievious injections which he had received had not had much effect on him, but the one he had had that day seemed to be acting very quickly He lemaiked that his legs were going stiff He also com- plained of being veiy thhsty A nuise came to him and took his tempeia ture and felt his pulse The nurse who could not find his pulse, asked him if he felt cold Deceased tiled to move, but the nurse told him to lie still and she brought him a hot .ftater bottle Witness stated that she noticed that deceased was lying very still, with his mouth open She then left the hospital, thinking that he was asleep, but 10 minutes after she ai rived home she received a telephone message that Intrup was dead



Australia,bnKkIcTmQMQr,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,CErFStBLEAULjV,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cUEkkzdpXLpcGOngt,Death,ellpyXjQJNy,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,gGqWixtKniBzYkIt,gGSApXFURvyvOYFI,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,HdDFKIzQRwRorEnOKJ,Incompetence,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,KQkkUxjfknGg,lzrUURcYZEMlBIC,Medical Issues,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,oqwNpPHuj,pBEJJBnAjYcgkKrHAu,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,Suspicious Activity,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,tzlhjLUwCMOmMNXW,UctCEBEwqRI,Vaccination,vMBsKPaN,VOLPMnWXGnTr,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,YOfLsndhZHSPBe,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,,kixvykWbM,



AFTER VACCINE. TWO MEN DIE. MEDICAL MEN'S EXPLANATION. Following the death on Decembei 29 last, in the Brisbane General Hos- pital, of Leslie Oswald Clayton (aged 32), and on Januaiy 4 1931, of Charles Alfred Intrup (aged 32), who had both been receiving \accine treatment foi rheumatoid arthritis an inquest v. as held by the City Coionei (Mr W Harris, P M ) yesterday Mr J c Roberts (Messrs Cham- bers, M'Nab, and Co) appeared on behalf of the Commonwealth Depart- ment while Doctors J V Duhig, R W Cilento, and Alex Murphy also were piesent Sergeant S Warn« examined the witnesses Annie Todd of Given-ten ace Pad- dington, step-sister of the deceased Charles Alfred Intrup stated that he was admitted to the Brisbane General Hospital on November 4 1930 suffei ing from rheumatism He was under treatment by Dr A Murphy She last saw her step-brothei at the hos- pital during \ ¡siting hours on January 4, when he complained of feeling un- well, having received an injection at about 1 o clock that afternoon He informed hei that pievious injections which he had received had not had much effect on him, but the one he had had that day seemed to be acting very quickly He lemaiked that his legs were going stiff He also com- plained of being veiy thhsty A nuise came to him and took his tempeia ture and felt his pulse The nurse who could not find his pulse, asked him if he felt cold Deceased tiled to move, but the nurse told him to lie still and she brought him a hot .ftater bottle Witness stated that she noticed that deceased was lying very still, with his mouth open She then left the hospital, thinking that he was asleep, but 10 minutes after she ai rived home she received a telephone message that Intrup was dead SERIOUS CONDITION. Dr Alexander Paterson Murphy, w ho had attended deceased, stated that the patient had been suffeiing fiom lheumatoid aithrltis An examination revealed that his heart was enlaiged, and that certain joints weie swollen and sensitive His teeth were in a bad state also and had to be ex- tracted undei an anaesthetic The condition of deceased was too serious for any oidinary drug treatment, and a protein was introduced to produce ai tindal fevei The tieatment had been in vogue since 1914, and was considered fiee from lisk, but a few untowaid results had been leported The injection taxed all the oigans of the bodj Headaches, general malaise, and severe pains in the affected paito weie the usual effects If those effects did not occui the tieatment was con sideied useless The usual protein in- troduced in the treatment was the typhoid bacillus and the dose vailed, some advising 10,000,000 organisms foi a start and others more The first tieatment on December 17 resulted in a mild íeaction, and the second dose also was mild The third dose was more successful The fouilh tieat- ment, on January 4, lesulted in the death of the patient four hours aftei the injection In reply to a question by the Coronet regarding the safety of the treatment, witness stated that in the case of people suffering fiom acute heart trouble there was a risk, but theie was always a certain amount of risk with any treatment In this particular case he did not consider the lisk justified the abolition of the treatment The vaccine used was peifectly normal, and he believed that death was due to caidiac tiouble CLAYTON'S DEATH. Concerning the death of Clayton, witness stated that the patient had normal heart, lungs, and kidneys, and blood tests proved negative A good reaction followed the vaccine treat- ment after the second dose of 50,000, 000 oiganlsms After further treat- ment the patient became comfortable Deceased was latei walking when he had what was described by eye-wit- nesses as an epileptic fit, and he died soon aft«wards A post-mortem ex- amination íevealed that his brain was intensely congested Theie was no data fiom the post-mortem examina- tion to show that death was due to the vaccine, anj it lather indicated to the contrary Di James Vincent Duhig acting Government medical officer, who made a post-moitem examination of Intrup, said that the object of the examina- tion was to deteimine whether death was caused by the vaccine, directly oi indirectly It revealed that the uppei lobes of deceased's lungs were scar íed, his heart was flabby and enlarg- ed, and weighed almost twice the nor- mal weight The spleen and kidneys were intensely congested also Bac tenological cultures from the affect- ed oigans weie made to decide whethei the patient had died from sepsis pos- sibly introduced with the vaccine, as occurred at Bundabeig Witness could have given a ceitificate for heart failure, but the mattei appeared serious and the Coronei was advised The bacteriological investigations show - ed that no sepsis was intioduced, but that the heait was gravely diseased Intiup might have dropped dead fiom any overstrain Shock oi heart failure could have caused his death and wit- ness thought that the heait failuie fiom which he died was due to ovei strain following the injection INTERNAL COMPLAINTS The post-moitem examination of the body of Clayton was also held by wit- ness Clayton appealed to be a healthy man but there was a congestion ot the liver, spleen, and kidney and an intense congestion of the brain This was not unusual in cases of shock Tlie findings on the biam were similai to those found on childi en who had died fiom convulsions He attributed this to denatuiation of the blood ves- sels, but was not piepaied to say whethei the vaccine was íesponsiblp oi not The cause of death was cere bial congestion There was no evi- dence of impiopei oi caieless treat- ment Di Malcolm Wesley Carseldine íesident medical officer attached to the Geneial Hospital, stated that on Januaiy 4 he wes asked to give an injection to Intrup by Dr Hogg thiough Di Murphy The vaccine was taken dhectly fiom the ampoule and injected into the patient, and was not exposed to the ali for any time Every piecaution was taken against foreign matter being injected This was about 12 45 pm Theie was no immediate íeaction, and he did not know that there had been a íeaction until he íe ceived a telephone message from the nurse in charge of the ward at about 3 45 p m She stated that the patient s condition was serious, and that she could not get his pulse He hastened to the ward and found the man dead He thought that death had taken place only a few seconds before Dr Raphael West Cilento, Diiector of the Division of Tropic Hygiene of Australia, stated that on January 5 Dr M'Lean of the Biisbane General Hospital reported to his quaiantme officer by telephone that two patients had died aftei mjections of bec vac- cine He gave immediate instructions that the source of the vaccine should be detei mined and that all ampoules of the batch should be traced and if they had been used that theil action should be lecorded Two parcels of this vaccine had been delivered to the Biisbane Geneial Hospital one at the end of Februaiy, 1930, and the othei on March 3, 1930. The ampoules used j m the case of Intrup- were actually the last of that consignment, all pre- vious ampoules having been used with- out complaint He gave evidence in legard to the method of prepara- tion of the vaccme, and stat- ed that results fiom this par-1 tiçular batch had been uniformly good | Half an hour after the administration i of a dose a patient usually had a ligor, followed by a rise in tempera- ture, but within 25. to 48 hours a considerable improvement occurred if the injection had been successful. In îegard to the treatment, he stated that naturally a certain amount ot exhaustion followed, but unless the shock was severe no good result could j follow. Normally the treatment was ¡ practically without risk. In his opin I ion the death of Intrup was due to j heart failure following shock, con ! sequent upon the Introduction pf the I vaccine upon an exhausted individual. I Dr. James Edgar Hogg, resident i Medical Officer attached to the Bris I bane General Hospital, stated that, under instructions from Dr. Murphy, he administered an injection to Clay- ton on November 10, consisting of 50, 000,000 bec, of vaccine. He administer- ed a second dose on December 19. On that occasion there was a slight le actlon, but not entirely satisfactoiy, and on December 24 he administered a third dose, with satisfactory results. A fourth dose was administered on De- cember 29, at 4.30 p.m, and deceased expired at 10.20 p.m on the same date. He was not on duty that night, but Dr. Harbison Informed him that he called to see the patient at 10 p.m, and that the patient had just had an epileptic form of convulsions, and had collapsed. The inquest was adjourned to 10 o'clock this morning.
Edit Links1930-11-19 19 Die in tragic mistake

19 Die in tragic mistake



General,Australia,



19 DIE. -? TRAGIC MISTAKE. DIPHTHERIA GERMS. , -? POLICE PROTECT DOCTORS. MEDEIXIN (Colombia), November 17. The police were forced to rush to the protection of the phy- sicians at the city's free medical institution, Casas Cunas, when tiley were attacked by riotous citizens, following- the- deaths of 19 children, and the serious illness of 30 others, due, it is alleged, to a laboratory error. It is declared that, following two successful treatments, a group ni poor children on a third visit to receive Injections of anti diphtheria vaccine, were erroneously inoculated with diphtheria germs. All the doctors in the city arc working desperately to save those who arc still alive.
Edit Links1930-07-14 Serum Tragedy 3 Arrests Doctor and Nurse charged in death of 55 children





Australia,AXEBmJYaGKgHTq,bLMkgvrsubcVDEDOgt,bQFDUpSLbSVwu,BqIEbpdHvQMwt,btFEJcLzQE,Canada,CMEZhCRrvPuhg,cmIdEBMKsJXNGDMxqA,Death,EgcjORvqDSJPkZnbr,fpVydUGODOUwgqIS,FQSknrsADHvMuaXSmN,gdfYHVCRn,General,GkuqGiiRaWRrNIxU,hYdotwNfWDrDKWWNsrv,IFAdXcZupG,ixopecYzZJIOmMH,jHENLJffEC,jQIrHLtt,kixvykWbM,kNpufgTBpJTWd,KQkkUxjfknGg,MIiOANpmWyTdnYzuK,MiZFHVcvIejUmQ,MmzGtmMyskJjgTGzu,Neglect,nmZjdCzYtwQVeSgs,nVrMUAeR,okOjdzMU,oOsWFZLyIKidmFTUhDN,oqwNpPHuj,pgruYKvoTpViLFNknuT,qMwEqWMLpHAmTba,QrhufkaXHifnQNpRTow,skLNtoEDdiNmsrKpJYh,swihecWBdwDDrmlhR,UYhyIUvYAR,VHAOVaUPZdZz,xfTDZIxT,xmqyFrlGum,XSelpxyFrsceeTCrWzS,XvjfNsQoUjqsN,yadTckFbYpTMunqWKp,yaQblAQoYH,YxkueJlQLieHdosEVYf,zblVDreIx,ZCxyVrqYnNwZtpo,ZeIVZHPxXFP,zqIytRXBenNPRk,,BDoCoJbIYfOJUSWx,



Edit Links1929-08-07 Funeral Interrupted Post-Mortem Examination made





United Kingdom,



Edit Links1928-07-13 Serum Tragedy Bundaberg Magisterial Inquiry





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Edit Links1928-03-06 Melbourne Doctor warned of danger of contamination - Serums vaccines





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Edit Links1928-02-03 Commonwealth Serum Laboratories - Laboratory assistants salaries Loss of children's lives





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Edit Links1928-02-02 Fatal Injections - Bundaberg Bundaberg Tragedy

BUNDABERG TRAGEDY. Fatal Injections. Terrible Blow to Parents. Agonising Scenes. THE campaign for the immunisation of children against, diptheria has led to Fix this text Newspaper clipping a terrible tragedy at Bundaberg owing to a cause which as yet is inexplicable.



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The WEEK REVIEWED BUNDABERG TRAGEDY. Fatal Injections. Terrible Blow to Parents. Agonising Scenes. THE campaign for the immunisation of children against, diptheria has led to a terrible tragedy at Bundaberg owing to a cause which as yet is inexplicable. On ■ Friday last, 10 children received in jection! of the toxin-antitoxin, six receiv ing their iinal treatment, and 13 their first injection. Hitherto no ill effects had fol lowed these operations, but during Friday Sight some of the patients became ill. with violent attacks of vomiting and diarrhoea. On Saturday morning a num ber of children were found to be serious ly ill, and were hurried to hospital. Des pite all that medical skill could do, many Of the little patients failed to rally, and Vb to last night 12 deaths had occurred, while five others are dangerously ill. The victims, include the family—three boys—of Mr. and Mrs. Robinson, and also the. family—two boys—of Aid. «nJ Mia. C. 0. Baker. Mr. and Mrs. Sheppard .have lost their two daughters, and their other children (two sons) are in a dangerous condition. "This sad occurrence, which evokes the deepest sympathy for the bereaved Barents, is utterly abnormal in the his tory of this valuable method of preventive treatment," said Dr. J. 8. Elkington, Director of Tropical Hygiene, Common wealth Department of Health, in an in terview yesterday. WlMle Family Wiped O«t * BUNDABERG, January 20. YgUNDABERG mourns the loss of 12 fine .'P* little children, whose bright young lives were nipped m the bud as the result ef sci'uui injected into their arms on Fri- Maj for the purpose of Marina; their ajuety against the dreaded diphtheria. The ■KJtims are :— Thomas Robinson, 5j years. William Robinson, 4 years. "• Wervyn Robinson, 1 year 11 month*. Edward Baker, 0 years. .* Keith Baker, 3 years. - George Baker, 6 years. Uarsden Coates 7 years. George Follitt, 2% years. Mary Bheppard, 5 years. Monica Sheppard, 2J yeaw. Myrtle Brennan, 5% years. Joan Peterson, 5Mb years. First llUtftcts. CO sudden was the happening that the F* city was not aware of the dreadful con* sjeqaences until late on Saturday after- TAOOfi. The victim* disclosed no ill-effects ttnftil about 9 o'clock on Friday evening, when they were seized with violent at tacks of vomiting and diarrhoea. Their parents rendered the usual attention, but they were not really concerned,. feeling that the illness was merely an after effect of the inoculation, so these at* * tacks went on during the night. On Saturday morning Dr. Thomson was sum* mooed to one of the homes, uld found the child dangerously ill. The child was ' immediately ordered to hospital, and the doctor, realising that something '-as amiss, rallied the ather medical officers of the eitr, and sent them after the other cbjl* *Jbr«n. Dr. Thomson, accompanied by a Burse, also hastened to the other homes, •n4 found the children seriously ill. The parents themselves, tip to this time, 1 were not aware that their little ones were seriously ill. The Ambulance bearers were called out, and for the rest of the 'morning they were engaged rushing through the city picking up the victims and hurrying them off to the hospital, wh«re everything had been got ready for their reception. In the collection of the d&dren the medical officers did splendid work Some of the children who had suffered no ill-effects were playing about ' tb« yards at their homes, and they were Carried to bed, the doctors leav - ing nothing to chance. At the . hospital there were heartrending scenes. Unforatttaftle Scenes. BY 11 o'clock there were 23 children in the institution. The doctors and nurses * worked perseveringly to save valuable lives, but in vain. The serum had done . its deadly work, and the children writhed in agony. Oxygen was freely used to keep the litt! heart* going, bat one by one ' they ceased to .beat. At midday four had d^*xt, Ant 1, as the afternoon wore on there waVo rnore deaths, with more to follow. It was a never-to-be-forgotten day for the hospital staff, what with children 1 djinis. others writhing in the throes of d«wth. and the sobbing of heart-broken pBrti-ta. sisters, and brothers. : Tfceiv were many touching incidents tn < tie ward Mr. and Mrs. Sheppard saw two of their children die simultaneously. T>«pit* this heavy blow, they bore up tvnh fortitude, in the hope of their other : :\ro hoj*. pulling through, and at their !,f-?'-cj th« grief-stricken father and , mntittr maintained a sileut vigil through . *v't t b' a?c'it. Parents an.* -clatives hung Danseroinly IN. Theme dangerously ill are:— Betty Peterson, 7 years. Jack Sheppard, 8 years. « William fifaeppard, 6 year*. Erne?t Docker, 7 years. Brenda Drews, 1 year. Doctor's Story. T)R. E. G. THOMSON, the City Council's medical officer of health, discussed the matter frankly to-day. He pointed out that the object was to immunise chil dren now healthy against contracting diphtheria by injecting into their bodied what could be described as a serum, and which inoculation had been carried out successfully in Rockh&mpton and Ipswich, as well as in other parts of the Com* monwealth. The treatment consisted of three injections, each a week apart, the dose being increased at the second and thirjl stages. On the 17th instant six children were brought to the Council Cb.am.bei* in response to the public la* vitation of the Bundaberg City Council, for wbioh he was the medical officer of health, and they were inoculated with serum. There were no after effects of any kind. On the 20th instant another seven children were inoculated, without any after effects being apparent. On the 24th instant six children were pre sented to receive their second injection, and one child to receive its first. Again no after effects occurred. On Friday last seven children came, six to receive tho final inoculation, while there were 13. new children, making a total of 20. for the day. The Only Theory. rPHE serum injected on all four occasions was taken from the one bottle, in his care, supplied by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratory, Melbourne, where it was manufactured. The doctor stressed the point that the method of making all injections since the commencement had not been changed. A week previously he had inoculated his own son with the same serum, and in the same manner, without any ill-effect. The only theory as to the cause of the deaths was the assumption that some active properties had develop* ed in the serum, and turned it into a poison. However/ that was only supposi* tton, and post-mortem and pathological examinations might throw light on this aspect. Tfce Pint latftmtfoa. rnHE iiret intimation the doctors received ■*- that anything wu amiss altar Friday'* inoeoUtions was a telephone message from Alderman C. 0. Baker, on his arrival home that night at midnight from a City Council meeting, stating that his two chil* dren were ill with vomiting and dysen tery. The significance was not realised at the time, but next morning Alderman Baker advised him that their condition was worse. Soon other messages came, and it .was obvious from the information coming in that the illnesses were asso* ciated with the previous day's inocula tion*. In these circumstances «P«ciw efforts were made to locate all the dm* dren treated, and they were moved to the General Hospital for that purpose. Actually not a great deal could be done for them. By Saturday night's train Dr. Thomson posted communications to Dr. J. 8. Slkington (Director, Division of Tropical Hygiene. Brisbane), and Dr. J. I. Moore (Commissioner of Public Health for Qneensland),_«ivini; a resume of the circumstances. The foregoing was aU the • information he could ghw, said Dr. Thorn* son. Every care bad been exercised,"! applying the treatment, and the fact that the same treatment and the same fetma at the outset had brought no fll-effects, arid on Friday and Saturday had result, ed fatally, were at present inexplicable circumstances responsible for what naa most unfortunately happened. Dm to Pttaon. T\R. E. G SCHMIDT (Government XJ^ Medical Officer of Health) con ducted eight post mortem examina tions to-day, and in each case certified that death waa due to acute toxaemia (poisoning), following an injec tion of toxin-antitoxin mixture. In an interview Dr. Schmidt said the tragedy was a niatter of surmise at this stage, and until something otherwise could be shown he agreed with Dr. Thomson that the only explanation Was that latent pro perties in the serum had suddenly become active and turned it into a virulent poison. Vomiting, dysentery, convulsions, and temperatures were features of the.ill nesses. Every possible thing had bfcen done to counteract the effects of the in oculations, some children having been gathered into hospital before they took ill, because of what had already occurred with other cases. It was a serious thing for the public and the medical fraternity alike, and a meeting of the public health committee of the British Medical Asso ciation would be held in Brisbane on Monday morning. . The. serum, or mix ture, he said, was tented each time any of it was sent out by the Commonwealth Laboratory* That was to say, each in dividual batch was thoroughl * tested* and it war quite certain that the serum sent to Bundaberg had been, no tested. ' Im munisation by the injection of -this serum was a world-wide practice. It was not n new discovery. It was used extensively in the F^nt'f-n P^tes, and had been iwcd clm'^-lipm' in 'J-ucnsland with full success, so that the tragic happening, in Bundaberg was all the more mystifying. '. Official statement. TNTERYIEWED with reference to the *" deaths of children reported from Bunda berg, as having occurred after toxin antitoxin injection for the prevention of diphtheria, Dr. Elkington, Director of Tropical Hygiene, Commonwealth Depart* ment of HeaHh. said:— "This sad occurrence, which evokes the deepest sympathy for the bereaved parents, is utterly abnormal in the history of this valuable method of preventive treat* ment. No similar instance," be con tinued, "has. so far as I am aware, been recorded anywhere, despite the use of the method in many hundreds of thousand* of eases in all parts of the world. Two medical officers of the Commonwealth De partment of Health have been detailed to visit Bundaberg for inquiry, and all avail* able information is being collected.. The outstanding fact which has appeared so far, has been that a number of children were inoculated between January 17 and 24, without suffering any ill effect, and that only those who were inoculated on January 27, from the same, bateh of material, became ill. Some of these had already received one injection of it, but onlr became ill after the second; the others became ill very soon altar their first injection. Thu indicates dearly enough that the material, a* reeehred, did not contain any harmful agency; and tfcat it did not contain any for at least a week after its receipt at Bandaberg. "The material, •as issued from the laboratories at Royal Park, in Metbowrae, is submitted to the most searching tests to ensure that it is sterile; —that ?. that it does not contain any tiring organisms, bat only the products of organisms, to which it owes its activity. Bad it con* tained, in the present case, any tiring organisms of disease, it is obvions that the children inoculated during the first week of its use would also hare been harmed. None of them suffered any untoward effect, however. Risk of CoatMimtien. "AN ordinary method of using this . ■*> material in a series of guaa such as school children, is to hare a rubber cap for the bottle, through which the needle is thrust to withdraw the content* as re* quired. A special warning is issued by the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories with all material so packed that the whole contents should be need as promptly as possible, in order to aroid any risk of contamination, and that ampoules, with sealed glass necks are safer. The rubber* capped containers are. howerer, mere eon* venient, and hare been largely used. The tiniest particle of dust entering with the needle—a particle far too smaH to eee with the naked eye—wouP be sufficient to contaminate the contents if it intro duced eren a single serin. This would multiply as yeast multiplies in deugh set for bread, and after a sufficient time cotrtd produce sufficient germs and their product* to render the product dangerous. The presence of such contamination, would not necessarily be accompanied by any obn'ous change in the appearance of the product. ''Arrangements have, however, been made to recall the particular batch from which the Bundefoerff sufferers were inoculated, nod to discontinue issue of toxin-antitoxin material for the present, pending full in vestigation. For the reasons stated, how ever, it appears unlikely that results will reveal anything pointing to original con tamination in the material as issued from the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories. Analyst's Startlina Statement BUNDABERG. January 30. IITB. JACOB CHRISTEXsIBN, B.Sc., who is pu'olic analyst by apyiolntinont of the Bundaberg City Council- and the Queensland CommuanoDec for Public Health, and has occupied that position for the past 20 yean, when interviewed, said that the serum as supplied by the Com* monweaitu Laboratory in Melbourne was perfectly safe, as demonstrated by the tact that inoculation from the 17th to the 24th inst. produced no harmful effects. For some reason or other it was decided to practise economy, for which furpose the serum was obtained in bulk. netead it should have been obtained in individual doses. Anti-tetanus and all serums were available, and were sup* plied' in individual doses* Who advised economy by buying in bulk he did not -know,' but it was a very wrong pro* eedure. If he had been consulted, as the public analyst, he would not have permitted the serum to be bought id -bulk- The makers of the serum knew that each time the container was opened, and the air admitted, sterilisation wan interfered with. In this case, to avoid opening the bottle containing the serum in bulk, the rubber cover over the month of the bottle was pierced with a syringe, ■and the serum was drawn up into it. The contracting of the rubber was relied on to close up the hole made by the syringe. One, two, three, or six punctures could be made perhaps, and the holes might dose up again. If the rubber were tightly stretched it would tend to open instead of close the holes. If it were loose the tendency naturally would be to close. "The serum was a serum of the blood, and was a most tempting medium for bacterial growth, as also was milk. The air going through the minute holes in the rubber covering could carry enormous quantities of foreign bacteria, the action of which on the serum they did not know. From the sad experience of the week-end they saw it produced a deadly toxin. A serum under such circimv stances of use could not be regarded sate for more -than 98 hours; then it should be thrown away. To blame the serum and science which had produced it was wrong. If he had been consulted as the public analyst he would have in sisted on individual doses, and then absolutely no harmful results eoald have occurred, unless the syringe was dirty. Events showed that the serum bad kept safely for a week, which «m greatly in exeess of what was to be ex pected. Instructions accompanying the serums were to use them quiekly, and not to keep them, as was the cast in Btmdaberg. "We have economised by buying serum in bulk," said Mr. Chris* tensen, "but we have spent dearly in precious lives/' He quite agreed with the instructions of the Commonwealth Laboratory, as mentioned by Dr. Siting ton, that the senna should be used aa promptly as possible to avoid the risk of contamination, and that sealed glass con tainers were safer than rubber-covered neck bottles. He further agreed with Dr. Slkington.as to the possible contamina tion from dust in the air. The tragic occurrence at Btmdabmr. will, undoubtedly, have the effect of causing a State-wide cessation of this pre ventive measure, until the whole matter is cleared «p. In any ease, the Commonwealth aataori ties, it m understood, have ordered that all the serum held in Queensland should be, at once, completely withdrawn from use. Furthermore, arrangements which had been mads for immunisation at State and other institutions have been cancelled until the fullest investigation has been made into the cause of the deaths at Bundaberg. F■ntraJi af VMtiffli. fTCdS entire city of Bundaberg; was in deep mourning on Monday, when the last tribute of respect was paid to the child victims of the fatal injections of anti-diphtheria serum. DandsJberg has) never passed through such a grief-stricken period. Women and children wept in the streets, and strong men were moved to tears as the tiny coffins passed by. Hie scenes at the gmveside were unforgetable. Rtal Estate AfMt: "Whtfs W Maar •' htttMrin' with aa sU rim Ilk* that t I'va sot a fin* mw htm jast ■■ tfct strati. —"Country Gentleman."
Edit Links1928-01-31 Funeral of Victims Bundaberg

Funeral of Victims Bundaberg (Bundaberg newspaper article)



,Australia,



' CITY IN MOURNING. BUNDABERG GRIEF-STRICKEN. FUNERALS OF VICTIMS. PAENEUL ORDEAL AT GRAVESIDE. The entire city of Bundaberg was in deep mourning yesterday, when the last tribute of re- spect was paid to the child victims of the fatal in- jections of anti-diphtheria serum. Bundaberg has never passed through su ch a grief-stricken period. Women and children wept in the streets, and strong men were moved to tears as the tiny cof- fins passed by. The seen es at the graveside were unforgettable. -, BUNDABERG, January 30. Bundaberg waB hrouded in sorrow to- day for the ill-fated children, whose lives were sacrificed in a national cause. The calamitous happening, Which was confin- ed to Bundaberg, has involved a great set- back to science, as the result of the fatal injections of Friday lost. Dr. Murray, of the Pathological Department, Commonwealth Laboratory, Brisbane, spent to-day in Bundaberg. He said that an exhaustive investigation would be made by the Department to ascertain what happened to the serum. Bundaberg never passed through such a grief-stricken day. The whole city came to a standstill, business houses and hotels closed their doors, and people flocked into the streets in thousands to pay their last sad tributes of respect to the innocent vicitms. Flags were flown at half mast. Shortly after 0 o'clock the Mayor re- ceived the following telegram from Mr. Mlienna (Under Secretary, Department of Public Instruction, Brisbane) :-"Permis- sion granted by the Minister (Mr. T.' Wilson) to close the achool to-day as a mark of respect. Please con viv the De- partment's sympathy to the bereaved families." The contents of the telegram were immediately conveyed to the head masters, -and the children were dismissed for the day. The Christian Brotheis' High School and the Convent School also closed. Sad indeed are the stories that could be related. Women and children wept in the streets, and! .strong hearted men were moved to teal s as tiny white coüins passed by. The graveside scenes were most pathetic. PUBLIC TRIBUTE. Shortly after 10 o'clock the dull 'thud of muffled drums, and the mournful music" of the bands struck up, and continued at intervals for the rest of the day. The first funeral was that of William Spencer Follett, only son of Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Follett, of Crofton-street. The two-and-ii half-years' old boy died whilst being con- veyed to the surgery of Dr. Schmidt. To this child the public paid a .wonderful tribute. The funeral, as it left the íesid enco of the parents, was headed by a School, and with them marched the chil- dren attending the Christian Brothers' School, and with them matched the chil- dren of the Convent School, in charge of teachers. Then came the hearse, with membeis of the City Council in attend- ance as pall bearers. The lengthy cortege included the chairman and members of shire councils, and representatives of all tho public bodies and semi-public institu- tions. The burial service waB read by the Rev. Father 0. Hayes, assisted by the Rev. Bro. Duffy (Principal of the Christian Brothers' High School). The grave was r covered with wreaths and flowers. The second funeral, which moved from the Church of England at 11 o'clock, was that of George Baker, the 0-year-old son of Mr. and Mrs, W. H. Baker, of Gaven street, North Bundaberg. George and his brother Frank received the ¡needle on Fri- day afternoon. The former, succumbed, but Frank suffered no ill-effects. There was a large gathering of the general public, including the Mayor and alder- men, chairmen and aldermen of the Shire Councils, and representatives of public bodies. Railwaymen also were present in large numbers. An impressive service was conducted in the church by the rector (Rev. B. P. Walker), The lengthy cortege was headed by the band, and members of the council attended as pall-bearers. At the cemetery gates the Salvation Army Band preceded the hearse to the grave, where the burial service was read foy the Rev. B. P. Walker, and as the coffin was lowered to its last resting place the band played "Nearer, My God, to Thee." A beautiful collection of wreaths was placed on the grave. At 12 noon the funeral of Joan Peter- son, the 5V4-year-old child of Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Peterson, of Wongarra-street, moved off from Brown and Co.'s funeral pai-lour, where the public had congre- gated in hundreds. A band preceded the cortege, Vhich included all classes of the community. Much sympathy was ex- tended to a family which "Was only resi- dent in the city for a few months, and were unfortunate to lose a bright girl, while another is seriously ill in hospital. The Mayor and aldermen and shire coun- cillors were present, and acted as pall- bearers, and other public bodies were re- presented. The Salvation Army Band met the funeral at the cemetery gates, and conducted the hearse to the grave, whore the service was read -by Brother J. R. Combridgo, State Evangelist ' of the Church of Christ. Joan was a scholar at the Central School. Several wreaths were placed 'on the graves. UNFORGETTABLE SCENES. The fourth funeral, which took placo at 2.15, was one that moved the seething mass of humanity to tears. The main street was densely thronged, and tho deathly silence was broken only by the sobbing of the vast multitude as the little white coffins passed by. It was the funeral of tho children of Mr. und Mrs. Thomas Robinson, Skyring-strcet, East Bundaberg, who lost their ii bolo family, Thomas (5J years), William (4 years), and Mervyn (1 year and 11 months). A more pathetic scene could not have been wit- nessed, and it was little wonder that the onlookers gave vent to their grief in the manner they did. Women were on the verge of collapse, children cried, and the sterner ses shed tears. Terrible was the scene as the remains of the three bonny bojs, who had played together and bright- ened the home of their devoted parents, passed en route to their last resting-place. The band was in the forefront, and im- mediately behind marched the employees of Skyring's sawmill in large numbers, then came the hearse covered with wreaths and flowers bearing the three cof- fins, followed by the mourning-coach with the grief-stricken parents, now bereft of their family. Following were the Mayor and aldermen, Shire Council representa- tives, and some 50 motor cars, containing public men and the general public. At the graveside the attendance was esti- mated at upwards of 1O00. It was here that the saddest scenes were witnessed. The grave was so dug as to accommodate two coffins side by side. The first to be lowered was that of Thomas, and the second contained the mortal remains of William. The two caskets laid side by side on the bottom of the grave, and on to them was lowered the coffin con- taining Mervyn. As they disappeared one by one into the bowels of the earth the parents broke down, the mother exclaim- ing, "My little darlings, they are all gone." The service -was read by the Rev. B. P. Walker. The grave was hid- den beneath a collection of wreaths and flowers. FUNERAL OF SISTERS. The fifth ..funeral provided another pathetic sight. It was that of two sisteis, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Shep- pard, Burrum-street, whose two sons, John i and William, are still dangerously ill. Mary was five years of age, and Monica two and a half years. The cortege moved from thi Church of the Holy Rosary, in the vicinity of which the pub- lic was densely congregated. The church also was filled. The service was con- ducted by the Rev. Father M. Baldwin, P.P., and as the little coffins were borne I out to the hearse the spectators again w. moved to tears. The grief-stricken father was present, but the mother was unable to leavo the hospital, where the two boys are very sick. The latter's father and mother (Mr. and Mrs., Cash, of Eumundi), and other members of the family, were present. The band was at the head of the funeral procession, and behind marched upwards of 200 children from the Christian Brothers' and Convent schools. The hearse was covered with wreaths and flowers. Representative citi- zens and members of tho general public attended in large numbers. At the Catho- lic Cemetery a large crowd had assembled, and the greatest emotion was exhibited as the" two coffins were lowered Bide by side into the grave, and the band played "Abide With Me." The father, who had borne up well, collapsed at the brink of the grave, the outcome of his pent-up feelings being most sad. TI e burial ser- vice was read by the Rev. Father Bald- win, assisted by Father Hayes and the Rev. Bro. Duffy, the principal Brothers of tho school.. The grave was hidden under a large collection of wreaths and flowers. Large crowds also gathered in the vicinity of the Salvation Army citadel for the funeral of Myrtle Brennan, the. three and-a-half-years old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Brennan, of Fairymead, but at the last moment the funeral was post- poned at the request of the health auth- orities, in order, it is understood, to sub- mit the body to a further examination by,, pathological experts, one of whom (Dr. Richards) arrived from Rockhamp- ton this evening. The funeral will take place to-morrow morning. UNFLAGGING SYMPATHY. The funeral processions continued into the evening. After toa the public again turned out in hundreds and wended their way to the home of Alderman C. 0. and Mrs. Baker, in West Bundaberg, whose two sons, Edward (aged 5 yeans) and Keith (3 years), were counted among the victims, leaving the parents without children. The bodies had been embalmed and placed in silver-mounted oaken caskets for conveyance to Stanthorpe for interment. The Mayor and aldermen attended, and acted as pall-bearers. The baud preceded the cortege to the railway station, where ,2000 persons had gathered, and the scenes were very sad. They were lovely boys, and the distracted parents are completely overcome at their loss. ' The coffins were placed aboard the mail train, and as it steamed out of the^station the band played "Abido With Me."